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      Targeting Recovery from Acute Kidney Injury: Incidence and Prevalence of Recovery

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          Since the creation of Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of Kidney Function, and End-Stage Renal Disease (RIFLE) criteria in the last 10 years, the use of a standardized definition of acute kidney injury (AKI) has made it possible for epidemiologic studies to document the increasing incidence of AKI, especially in the critical care setting [<citeref rid="ref1">1</citeref>]. In addition, several studies applying the criteria of RIFLE, Acute Kidney Injury Network, and, more recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome, were able to establish the association of severity of AKI with adverse clinical outcomes, including the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) [<citeref rid="ref2">2</citeref>,<citeref rid="ref3">3</citeref>,<citeref rid="ref4">4</citeref>]. Although, until recently, it was thought that survivors from an AKI episode frequently recover kidney function, cumulative observational data over the past decade have confirmed the association of AKI with the increased risk for permanent kidney damage, with subsequent development of CKD [<citeref rid="ref5">5</citeref>]. The epidemiological studies that we will present and discuss in this review confirm and clarify the association of AKI with the development of CKD and ESRD [<citeref rid="ref6">6</citeref>,<citeref rid="ref7">7</citeref>,<citeref rid="ref8">8</citeref>].

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          Most cited references 24

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          Acute kidney injury increases risk of ESRD among elderly.

          Risk for ESRD among elderly patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) has not been studied in a large, representative sample. This study aimed to determine incidence rates and hazard ratios for developing ESRD in elderly individuals, with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD), who had AKI. In the 2000 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, clinical conditions were identified using Medicare claims; ESRD treatment information was obtained from ESRD registration during 2 yr of follow-up. Our cohort of 233,803 patients were hospitalized in 2000, were aged > or = 67 yr on discharge, did not have previous ESRD or AKI, and were Medicare-entitled for > or = 2 yr before discharge. In this cohort, 3.1% survived to discharge with a diagnosis of AKI, and 5.3 per 1000 developed ESRD. Among patients who received treatment for ESRD, 25.2% had a previous history of AKI. After adjustment for age, gender, race, diabetes, and hypertension, the hazard ratio for developing ESRD was 41.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.6 to 49.1) for patients with AKI and CKD relative to those without kidney disease, 13.0 (95% CI 10.6 to 16.0) for patients with AKI and without previous CKD, and 8.4 (95% CI 7.4 to 9.6) for patients with CKD and without AKI. In summary, elderly individuals with AKI, particularly those with previously diagnosed CKD, are at significantly increased risk for ESRD, suggesting that episodes of AKI may accelerate progression of renal disease.
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            Incidence and outcomes in acute kidney injury: a comprehensive population-based study.

            Epidemiological studies of acute kidney injury (AKI) and acute-on-chronic renal failure (ACRF) are surprisingly sparse and confounded by differences in definition. Reported incidences vary, with few studies being population-based. Given this and our aging population, the incidence of AKI may be much higher than currently thought. We tested the hypothesis that the incidence is higher by including all patients with AKI (in a geographical population base of 523,390) regardless of whether they required renal replacement therapy irrespective of the hospital setting in which they were treated. We also tested the hypothesis that the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-Stage Kidney (RIFLE) classification predicts outcomes. We identified all patients with serum creatinine concentrations > or =150 micromol/L (male) or > or =130 micromol/L (female) over a 6-mo period in 2003. Clinical outcomes were obtained from each patient's case records. The incidences of AKI and ACRF were 1811 and 336 per million population, respectively. Median age was 76 yr for AKI and 80.5 yr for ACRF. Sepsis was a precipitating factor in 47% of patients. The RIFLE classification was useful for predicting full recovery of renal function (P < 0.001), renal replacement therapy requirement (P < 0.001), length of hospital stay [excluding those who died during admission (P < 0.001)], and in-hospital mortality (P = 0.035). RIFLE did not predict mortality at 90 d or 6 mo. Thus the incidence of AKI is much higher than previously thought, with implications for service planning and providing information to colleagues about methods to prevent deterioration of renal function. The RIFLE classification is useful for identifying patients at greatest risk of adverse short-term outcomes.
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              Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease: an integrated clinical syndrome.

              The previous conventional wisdom that survivors of acute kidney injury (AKI) tend to do well and fully recover renal function appears to be flawed. AKI can cause end-stage renal disease (ESRD) directly, and increase the risk of developing incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and worsening of underlying CKD. In addition, severity, duration, and frequency of AKI appear to be important predictors of poor patient outcomes. CKD is an important risk factor for the development and ascertainment of AKI. Experimental data support the clinical observations and the bidirectional nature of the relationships between AKI and CKD. Reductions in renal mass and nephron number, vascular insufficiency, cell cycle disruption, and maladaptive repair mechanisms appear to be important modulators of progression in patients with and without coexistent CKD. Distinction between AKI and CKD may be artificial. Consideration should be given to the integrated clinical syndrome of diminished GFR, with acute and chronic stages, where spectrum of disease state and outcome is determined by host factors, including the balance of adaptive and maladaptive repair mechanisms over time. Physicians must provide long-term follow-up to patients with first episodes of AKI, even if they presented with normal renal function.

                Author and article information

                Nephron Clin Pract
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                September 2014
                24 September 2014
                : 127
                : 1-4
                : 4-9
                aDivision of Nephrology, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; bDivision of Nephrology-Hypertension, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, Calif., USA
                Author notes
                *Etienne Macedo, Nephrology Department, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 7º andar, sala 11F, São Paulo, SP 05403-000 (Brazil), E-Mail etimacedo@usp.br
                363704 Nephron Clin Pract 2014;127:4-9
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Pages: 6


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