0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A Review of In Situ Methods—Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) for the Collection and Concentration of Marine Biotoxins and Pharmaceuticals in Environmental Waters

      , , , ,
      Molecules
      MDPI AG

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) are in situ methods that have been applied to pre-concentrate a range of marine toxins, pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds that occur at low levels in marine and environmental waters. Recent research has identified the widespread distribution of biotoxins and pharmaceuticals in environmental waters (marine, brackish and freshwater) highlighting the need for the development of effective techniques to generate accurate quantitative water system profiles. In this manuscript, we reviewed in situ methods known as Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) for the collection and concentration of marine biotoxins, freshwater cyanotoxins and pharmaceuticals in environmental waters since the 1980s to present. Twelve different adsorption substrates in SPATT and 18 different sorbents in POCIS were reviewed for their ability to absorb a range of lipophilic and hydrophilic marine biotoxins, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, antibiotics and microcystins in marine water, freshwater and wastewater. This review suggests the gaps in reported studies, outlines future research possibilities and guides researchers who wish to work on water contaminates using Solid Phase Adsorption Toxin Tracking (SPATT) and Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) technologies.

          Related collections

          Most cited references300

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Inhibitory effect of a marine-sponge toxin, okadaic acid, on protein phosphatases. Specificity and kinetics.

          The inhibitory effect of a marine-sponge toxin, okadaic acid, was examined on type 1, type 2A, type 2B and type 2C protein phosphatases as well as on a polycation-modulated (PCM) phosphatase. Of the protein phosphatases examined, the catalytic subunit of type 2A phosphatase from rabbit skeletal muscle was most potently inhibited. For the phosphorylated myosin light-chain (PMLC) phosphatase activity of the enzyme, the concentration of okadaic acid required to obtain 50% inhibition (ID50) was about 1 nM. The PMLC phosphatase activities of type 1 and PCM phosphatase were also strongly inhibited (ID50 0.1-0.5 microM). The PMCL phosphatase activity of type 2B phosphatase (calcineurin) was inhibited to a lesser extent (ID50 4-5 microM). Similar results were obtained for the phosphorylase a phosphatase activity of type 1 and PCM phosphatases and for the p-nitrophenyl phosphate phosphatase activity of calcineurin. The following phosphatases were not affected by up to 10 microM-okadaic acid: type 2C phosphatase, phosphotyrosyl phosphatase, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate phosphatase, acid phosphatases and alkaline phosphatases. Thus okadaic acid had a relatively high specificity for type 2A, type 1 and PCM phosphatases. Kinetic studies showed that okadaic acid acts as a non-competitive or mixed inhibitor on the okadaic acid-sensitive enzymes.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

            Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins activate sodium ion (Na ) channels, causing cell membrane excitability and instability. Worldwide coral bleaching is now well documented, and there is a strong association between global warming and the bleaching and death of coral. This, together with natural environmental factors such as earthquakes and hurricanes, and man-made factors such as tourism, dock construction, sewage and eutrophication, may create more favourable environments for G. toxicus. While low levels of G. toxicus are found throughout tropical and subtropical waters, the presence of bloom numbers is unpredictable and patchy. Only certain genetic strains produce ciguatoxins, and environmental triggers for increasing toxin production are unknown.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: found
              Is Open Access

              An Updated Review of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Clinical, Epidemiological, Environmental, and Public Health Management

              Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently reported seafood-toxin illness in the world. It causes substantial human health, social, and economic impacts. The illness produces a complex array of gastrointestinal, neurological and neuropsychological, and cardiovascular symptoms, which may last days, weeks, or months. This paper is a general review of CFP including the human health effects of exposure to ciguatoxins (CTXs), diagnosis, human pathophysiology of CFP, treatment, detection of CTXs in fish, epidemiology of the illness, global dimensions, prevention, future directions, and recommendations for clinicians and patients. It updates and expands upon the previous review of CFP published by Friedman et al. (2008) and addresses new insights and relevant emerging global themes such as climate and environmental change, international market issues, and socioeconomic impacts of CFP. It also provides a proposed universal case definition for CFP designed to account for the variability in symptom presentation across different geographic regions. Information that is important but unchanged since the previous review has been reiterated. This article is intended for a broad audience, including resource and fishery managers, commercial and recreational fishers, public health officials, medical professionals, and other interested parties.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                MOLEFW
                Molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI AG
                1420-3049
                November 2022
                November 15 2022
                : 27
                : 22
                : 7898
                Article
                10.3390/molecules27227898
                36431996
                96384b83-3aec-4b1d-8eb8-a3638b2fc63b
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article