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      Quantitative fragment analysis of FLT3-ITD efficiently identifying poor prognostic group with high mutant allele burden or long ITD length

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          Mutation of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication ( FLT3-ITD), which is one of the most frequent genetic alterations, strongly contributes to an increased risk of treatment failure and to poor prognosis. In this study, we established quantitative fragment analysis of FLT3-ITD simultaneously measuring mutant allele burden and length, verified the analytical performance and evaluated the clinical significance in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. FLT3-ITD was detected in 73 of 363 adult AML patients (20.1%) and high mutant allelic burden (⩾50%, n=13) and long ITD length (⩾70 base pairs, n=15) were significantly associated with inferior overall survival (OS; P=0.002 and 0.005, respectively) and event-free survival (EFS; P=0.004 and 0.007, respectively). FLT3-ITD poor prognostic group was identified as patients with high allele burden or long ITD length ( n=24), which revealed significant adverse clinical outcome for both OS ( P<0.001) and EFS ( P<0.001). In cytogenetically normal AML, even FLT3-ITD low allele burden and short length was associated with poorer OS ( P=0.037) and EFS ( P=0.044) than wild type, whose influence was overcome when hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was performed. In minimal residual disease monitoring, FLT3-ITD negativity after consolidation therapy was a valuable predictor of better OS ( P<0.001) and EFS ( P<0.001). FLT3-ITD poor prognostic group with high mutant allele burden or long ITD length is efficiently identified by quantitative fragment analysis.

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          Mutations and treatment outcome in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.

          Mutations occur in several genes in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells: the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1), the fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3), the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha gene (CEPBA), the myeloid-lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL), and the neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS). We evaluated the associations of these mutations with clinical outcomes in patients. We compared the mutational status of the NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, MLL, and NRAS genes in leukemia cells with the clinical outcome in 872 adults younger than 60 years of age with cytogenetically normal AML. Patients had been entered into one of four trials of therapy for AML. In each study, patients with an HLA-matched related donor were assigned to undergo stem-cell transplantation. A total of 53% of patients had NPM1 mutations, 31% had FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITDs), 11% had FLT3 tyrosine kinase-domain mutations, 13% had CEBPA mutations, 7% had MLL partial tandem duplications (PTDs), and 13% had NRAS mutations. The overall complete-remission rate was 77%. The genotype of mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD, the mutant CEBPA genotype, and younger age were each significantly associated with complete remission. Of the 663 patients who received postremission therapy, 150 underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation from an HLA-matched related donor. Significant associations were found between the risk of relapse or the risk of death during complete remission and the leukemia genotype of mutant NPM1 without FLT3-ITD (hazard ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.61), the mutant CEBPA genotype (hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.75), and the MLL-PTD genotype (hazard ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.43), as well as receipt of a transplant from an HLA-matched related donor (hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.82). The benefit of the transplant was limited to the subgroup of patients with the prognostically adverse genotype FLT3-ITD or the genotype consisting of wild-type NPM1 and CEBPA without FLT3-ITD. Genotypes defined by the mutational status of NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, and MLL are associated with the outcome of treatment for patients with cytogenetically normal AML. Copyright 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Analysis of FLT3-activating mutations in 979 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia: association with FAB subtypes and identification of subgroups with poor prognosis.

             C Thiede (2002)
            Constitutive activation of the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase, either by internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the juxtamembrane region or by point mutations in the second tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), has been described in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We analyzed the prevalence and the potential prognostic impact of FLT3 mutations in 979 AML patients. Results were correlated with cytogenetic data and the clinical response. FLT3-ITD mutations were found in 20.4% and FLT3-TKD mutations in 7.7% of the patients. Each mutation was associated with similar clinical characteristics and was more prevalent in patients with normal karyotype. Significantly more FLT3 aberrations were found in patients with FAB M5, and fewer were found in patients with FAB M2 and M6. Although less frequent in patients with cytogenetic aberrations, FLT3-ITDs were found in 13 of 42 patients with t(15;17) and in 9 of 10 patients with t(6;9). The prevalence of the ITD allele on the DNA level was heterogeneous, ranging from faint mutant bands in some patients to predominant mutant bands in others. Based on quantitative analysis, the mutant-wild-type (wt) ratio ranged from 0.03 to 32.56 (median, 0.78). Patients with a high mutant/wt ratio (ie, greater than 0.78) had significantly shorter overall and disease-free survival, whereas survival in patients with ratios below 0.78 did not differ from those without FLT3 aberrations. Multivariate analysis confirmed a high mutant/wt ratio to be a strong independent prognostic factor. Taken together, these data confirm that FLT mutations represent a common alteration in adult AML. Constitutive activation may be associated with monocytoid differentiation. A high mutant/wt ratio in ITD-positive patients appears to have a major impact on the prognostic relevance.
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              Analysis of FLT3 length mutations in 1003 patients with acute myeloid leukemia: correlation to cytogenetics, FAB subtype, and prognosis in the AMLCG study and usefulness as a marker for the detection of minimal residual disease.

              FLT3 length mutation (FLT3-LM) is a molecular marker potentially useful for the characterization of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To evaluate the distribution of FLT3-LM within biologic subgroups, we screened 1003 patients with AML at diagnosis for this mutation. FLT3-LM was found in 234 (23.5%) of all patients and thus is the most frequent mutation in AML described so far. Of all positive patients, 165 (70.5%) revealed a normal karyotype. Of the 69 patients with chromosome aberrations, 24 (34.8%) had a t(15;17). The mutation was rare in AML with t(8;21), inv(16) 11q23 rearrangements, and complex karyotypes. FLT3-LM was not distributed equally within different French-American-British (FAB) subtypes and was correlated with a high peripheral blood count in FAB M1, M2, and M4 (P <.0001). In addition, the median age of patients with the mutation was lower (54.9 vs 57.6 years; P =.043), and, at a ratio of 1.36:1 (P =.023), the mutation was more frequent in females than in males. Within the AMLCG study, FLT3-LM was of intermediate prognostic significance. The complete remission rate of 70.3% in patients with FLT3-LM was similar to that (70.4%) in patients without FLT3-LM. Overall survival was not different between patients with or without FLT3-LM. In contrast, patients with FLT3-LM had a significantly shorter event-free survival (7.4 vs 12.6 months; P =.0072) because of a higher relapse rate. Besides the importance of FLT3-LM for biologic and clinical characterization of AML, we show its value as a marker for disease monitoring based on 120 follow-up samples of 34 patients.

                Author and article information

                Blood Cancer J
                Blood Cancer J
                Blood Cancer Journal
                Nature Publishing Group
                August 2015
                14 August 2015
                1 August 2015
                : 5
                : 8
                : e336
                [1 ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Catholic Genetic Laboratory Center, College of Medicine, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Cancer Research Institute, Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Catholic Blood and Marrow Transplantation Center, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Department of Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea , Banpo-daero 222, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, Republic of Korea. E-mail: microkim@ 123456catholic.ac.kr
                Copyright © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Original Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy


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