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      Origin and Evolution of TRIM Proteins: New Insights from the Complete TRIM Repertoire of Zebrafish and Pufferfish

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          Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large zebrafish genome and of the compact pufferfish genome. Both contain three large multigene subsets - adding the hsl5/ trim35-like genes ( hltr) to the ftr and the btr that we previously described - all containing a B30.2 domain that evolved under positive selection. These subsets are conserved among teleosts. By contrast, most human trim genes of the other classes have only one or two orthologues in fish. Loss or gain of C-terminal exons generated proteins with different domain organizations; either by the deletion of the ancestral domain or, remarkably, by the acquisition of a new C-terminal domain. Our survey of fish trim genes in fish identifies subsets with different evolutionary dynamics. trims encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins show the same evolutionary trends in fish and tetrapods: they evolve fast, often under positive selection, and they duplicate to create multigenic families. We could identify new combinations of domains, which epitomize how new trim classes appear by domain insertion or exon shuffling. Notably, we found that a cyclophilin-A domain replaces the B30.2 domain of a zebrafish fintrim gene, as reported in the macaque and owl monkey antiretroviral TRIM5α. Finally, trim genes encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins are preferentially located in the vicinity of MHC or MHC gene paralogues, which suggests that such trim genes may have been part of the ancestral MHC.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Genome evolution and biodiversity in teleost fish.

           J-N Volff (2005)
          Teleost fish, which roughly make up half of the extant vertebrate species, exhibit an amazing level of biodiversity affecting their morphology, ecology and behaviour as well as many other aspects of their biology. This huge variability makes fish extremely attractive for the study of many biological questions, particularly of those related to evolution. New insights gained from different teleost species and sequencing projects have recently revealed several peculiar features of fish genomes that might have played a role in fish evolution and speciation. There is now substantial evidence that a round of tetraploidization/rediploidization has taken place during the early evolution of the ray-finned fish lineage, and that hundreds of duplicate pairs generated by this event have been maintained over hundreds of millions of years of evolution. Differential loss or subfunction partitioning of such gene duplicates might have been involved in the generation of fish variability. In contrast to mammalian genomes, teleost genomes also contain multiple families of active transposable elements, which might have played a role in speciation by affecting hybrid sterility and viability. Finally, the amazing diversity of sex determination systems and the plasticity of sex chromosomes observed in teleost might have been involved in both pre- and postmating reproductive isolation. Comparison of data generated by current and future genome projects as well as complementary studies in other species will allow one to approach the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying genome diversity in fish, and will certainly significantly contribute to our understanding of gene evolution and function in humans and other vertebrates.
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            Orthology, paralogy and proposed classification for paralog subtypes.

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              Characterization of housekeeping genes in zebrafish: male-female differences and effects of tissue type, developmental stage and chemical treatment

              Background Research using the zebrafish model has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Although real-time reverse transcription PCR (QPCR), normalized to an internal reference ("housekeeping") gene, is a frequently used method for quantifying gene expression changes in zebrafish, many commonly used housekeeping genes are known to vary with experimental conditions. To identify housekeeping genes that are stably expressed under different experimental conditions, and thus suitable as normalizers for QPCR in zebrafish, the present study evaluated the expression of eight commonly used housekeeping genes as a function of stage and hormone/toxicant exposure during development, and by tissue type and sex in adult fish. Results QPCR analysis was used to quantify mRNA levels of bactin1, tubulin alpha 1(tuba1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd), TATA-box binding protein (tbp), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), elongation factor 1 alpha (elfa), and 18s ribosomal RNA (18s) during development (2 – 120 hr postfertilization, hpf); in different tissue types (brain, eye, liver, heart, muscle, gonads) of adult males and females; and after treatment of embryos/larvae (24 – 96 hpf) with commonly used vehicles for administration and agents that represent known environmental endocrine disruptors. All genes were found to have some degree of variability under the conditions tested here. Rank ordering of expression stability using geNorm analysis identified 18s, b2m, and elfa as most stable during development and across tissue types, while gapdh, tuba1, and tpb were the most variable. Following chemical treatment, tuba1, bactin1, and elfa were the most stably expressed whereas tbp, 18s, and b2m were the least stable. Data also revealed sex differences that are gene- and tissue-specific, and treatment effects that are gene-, vehicle- and ligand-specific. When the accuracy of QPCR analysis was tested using different reference genes to measure suppression of cyp19a1b by an estrogen receptor antagonist and induction of cyp1a by an arylhydrocarbon receptor agonist, the direction and magnitude of effects with stable and unstable genes differed. Conclusion This study provides data that can be expected to aid zebrafish researchers in their initial choice of housekeeping genes for future studies, but underlines the importance of further validating housekeeping genes for each new experimental paradigm and fish species.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                15 July 2011
                : 6
                : 7
                [1 ]Virologie et Immunologie Moléculaires, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Jouy-en-Josas, France
                [2 ]Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
                [3 ]Institute of Zoology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland
                [4 ]Equipe Evolution Biologique et Modélisation UMR 6632 Université de Aix Marseille I/CNRS, Centre St Charles, Marseille, France
                [5 ]Unité Macrophages et Développement de l'Immunité, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
                [6 ]URA 2578 du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France
                California State University Fullerton, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: PB LMvdA LJ LDP AB J-PL. Performed the experiments: PB LMvdA LJ LDP VB J-PL. Analyzed the data: PB LMvdA LJ LDP PP J-PL. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: PB LDP LMvdA LJ PP AB J-PL. Wrote the paper: PB LMvdA LDP PP J-PL.

                Boudinot et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 18
                Research Article
                Comparative Genomics
                Genome Evolution
                Immunity to Infections
                Innate Immunity
                Genetics of the Immune System



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