The larvae of Anischia Fleutiaux and Perothops Laporte are described. Cladistic analyses based on adult and larval morphology, as well as CO1 sequence data, place both genera in the Eucnemidae clade within the Elateroidea (sensu stricto). The subfamily Anischiinae Fleutiaux, 1936 is placed in the family Eucnemidae in a clade containing the more derived eucnemid subfamilies (Melasinae, Eucneminae and Macraulacinae), while Perothops and Phyllocerus Lepeletier & Serville represent subfamilies basal to the remaining eucnemid taxa. The genus Afranischia Basilewsky, 1955 is synonymized with Anischia Fleutiaux, 1896, and Anischia boliviana Fleutiaux is selected as the type species of the latter. Three new species are described: Anischia bicolor (New Caledonia), Anischia kuscheli (New Caledonia) and Anischia monteithi (NE Australia), and Anischia stupenda Fleutiaux, 1897 is recorded from Australia. Anischia crassicornis Champion, 1897 is synonymized with Anischia mexicana Fleutiaux, 1896. One new combination is made, Anischia ruandana (Basilewsky, 1955).