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Assessment of ambient air quality in Eskişehir, Turkey.

Environment International

Turkey, methods, Environmental Monitoring, analysis, Air Pollutants

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      Abstract

      This paper presents an assessment of air quality of the city Eskişehir, located 230 km southwest to the capital of Turkey. Only five of the major air pollutants, most studied worldwide and available for the region, were considered for the assessment. Available sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), particulate matter (PM), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), ozone (O(3)), and non-methane volatile organic carbons (NMVOCs) data from local emission inventory studies provided relative source contributions of the selected pollutants to the region. The contributions of these typical pollution parameters, selected for characterizing such an urban atmosphere, were compared with the data established for other cities in the nation and world countries. Additionally, regional ambient SO(2) and PM concentrations, determined by semi-automatic monitoring at two sites, were gathered from the National Ambient Air Monitoring Network (NAAMN). Regional data for ambient NO(2) (as a precursor of ozone as VOCs) and ozone concentrations, through the application of the passive sampling method, were provided by the still ongoing local air quality monitoring studies conducted at six different sites, as representatives of either the traffic-dense-, or coal/natural gas burning residential-, or industrial/rural-localities of the city. Passively sampled ozone data at a single rural site were also verified with the data from a continuous automatic ozone monitoring system located at that site. Effects of variations in seasonal-activities, newly established railway system, and switching to natural gas usage on the temporal changes of air quality were all considered for the assessment. Based on the comparisons with the national [AQCR (Air Quality Control Regulation). Ministry of Environment (MOE), Ankara. Official Newspaper 19269; 1986.] and a number of international [WHO (World Health Organization). Guidelines for Air Quality. Geneva; 2000. Downloaded in January 2006, website: http://www.who.int/peh/; EU (European Union). Council Directive 1999/30/EC relating to limit values for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and lead in ambient air. Of J Eur Communities L 163: 14-30; 29.6.1999; EU (European Union). Council Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air. Of J Eur Communities. L 67: 14-30; 9.3.2002.; USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Downloaded in January 2006, website: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/] ambient air standards, among all the pollutants studied, only the annual average SO(2) concentration was found to exceed one specific limit value (EU limit for protection of the ecosystem). A part of the data (VOC/NO(x) ratio), for determining the effects of photochemical interactions, indicated that VOC-limited regime was prevailing throughout the city.

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      Journal
      10.1016/j.envint.2007.12.016
      18291527

      Chemistry

      Turkey, methods, Environmental Monitoring, analysis, Air Pollutants

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