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      Immune responses induced by DNA vaccines bearing Spike gene of PEDV combined with porcine IL-18


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          ► Generation of three distinct DNA constructs encoding S protein of PEDV, the N-terminal fragment (S1) of PEDV and porcine interleukin-18 (pIL-18). ► Immune responses of above-mentioned DNA constructs were evaluated systematically using mouse model. ► PEDV-S and the combination of PEDV-S1 with pIL-18 induced the strongest responses but that pIL-18 had no adjuvant effects when given in combination with PEDV-S1.


          Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea, a highly contagious enteric disease of swine. The Spike (S) protein is one of the main structural proteins of PEDV capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies in vivo. Herein, we generated three distinct DNA constructs in the eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1; one encoding the S protein [pVAX1-(PEDV-S)], the second encoding the N-terminal fragment (S1) [pVAX1-(PEDV-S1)] containing potent antigenic sites, and the third expressing the porcine interleukin-18 (pIL-18) [pVAX1-(IL-18)]. Immunofluorescence assays in BHK-21 cells demonstrated successful protein expression from all 3 constructs. Kunming mice were injected separately with each of these constructs or with a pVAX1-(PEDV-S1)/pVAX1-(IL-18) combination, an attenuated PEDV vaccine, or vector only control. Animals were examined for T lymphocyte proliferation, anti-PEDV antibodies, IFN-γ and IL-4 protein levels, and cytotoxic T cell function in mouse peripheral blood and spleen. In all cases, results showed that pVAX1-(PEDV-S) and the combination of pVAX1-(PEDV-S1) with pVAX1-(IL-18) induced the strongest responses; however, pIL-18 had no adjuvant effects when given in combination with pVAX1-(PEDV-S1).

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          A new coronavirus-like particle associated with diarrhea in swine

          Summary Coronavirus-like particles were detected by electron microscopy in the intestinal contents of pigs during a diarrheal outbreak on 4 swine breeding farms. Diarrhea was reproduced in experimental pigs with one of the isolates, designated CV777, which was found to be distinct from the 2 known porcine coronaviruses, transmissible gastroenteritis virus and hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus.
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            Interferon-gamma-inducing factor enhances T helper 1 cytokine production by stimulated human T cells: synergism with interleukin-12 for interferon-gamma production.

            The novel cytokine interferon-gamma-inducing factor (IGIF) augments natural killer (NK) cell activity in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), similarly to the structurally unrelated cytokine interleukin (IL)-12. IGIF has been found to enhance the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) while inhibiting the production of IL-10 in concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated PBMC. In this study, when anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb)-stimulated human enriched T cells were exposed to IGIF, the cytokine dose-dependently enhanced the proliferation of the cells and this could be completely inhibited by a neutralizing antibody against IL-2 at lower concentrations of IGIF. Neutralizing antibody against IFN-gamma had only insignificant inhibitory effects on T cell proliferation at higher concentrations of IGIF. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) revealed that, like PBMC, T cells exposed to IGIF produced large amounts of IFN-gamma; however, changes in the production of IL-4 and IL-10 were minimal. IGIF, but not IL-12, significantly enhanced IL-2 and GM-CSF production in T cell cultures, as determined by CTLL-2 bioassay and ELISA, respectively; however, both IGIF and IL-12 enhanced IFN-gamma production by the T cells. When T cells were exposed to a combination of IGIF and IL-12, a synergistic effect was observed on the production of IFN-gamma, but not on production of IL-2 and GM-CSF. In conclusion, IGIF enhances T cell proliferation apparently through an IL-2-dependent pathway and enhances Th1 cytokine production in vitro and exhibits synergism when combined with IL-12 in terms of enhanced IFN-gamma production but not IL-2 and GM-CSF production. Based on structural and functional differences from any known cytokines, it was recently proposed that this cytokine be designated interleukin-18.
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              Antigenic Structure of Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus. II. Domains in the Peplomer Glycoprotein


                Author and article information

                Virus Res
                Virus Res
                Virus Research
                Elsevier B.V. Published by Elsevier B.V.
                19 May 2012
                August 2012
                19 May 2012
                : 167
                : 2
                : 259-266
                [a ]College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 59 Mucai Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, China
                [b ]School of Life Science, Inner Mongolia University for the Nationalities, 866 Xilamulun Street, Tongliao, Inner Mongolia 028043, China
                [c ]Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705, USA
                [d ]Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory for Germplasm Innovation and Utilization of Grop, Hunan Agricultural University, 1 Nongda Road, Furong Disctrict, Changsha 410128, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, 59 Mucai Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin 150030, China. Tel.: +86 451 55190385; fax: +86 451 55103336. renxf@ 123456neau.edu.cn rxfemail@ 123456yahoo.com.cn
                Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                : 17 February 2012
                : 2 May 2012
                : 5 May 2012

                Microbiology & Virology
                porcine epidemic diarrhea virus,spike protein,porcine interleukin-18 gene,adjuvant,dna immunization


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