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      Prognosis of Asymptomatic Hematuria and/or Proteinuria in Men

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          Abstract

          Aim: To elucidate prognosis and prevalence of chronic renal diseases among proteinuric and/or hematuric subjects found in mass screening, a long-term follow-up study (6.35 years, range 1.03–14.6 years) was conducted on Japanese working men. Methods: A total of 772 subjects selected from 50,501 Japanese men aged 15–62 years were found to have asymptomatic hematuria (n = 404), concomitant hematuria and proteinuria (n = 155), and proteinuria (n = 213) during their annual urine examination and five consecutive urinalyses. Results: Hematuria patients showed significant improvements in urinary abnormalities as compared with both hematuria/proteinuria and proteinuria patients. Both hematuria/proteinuria patients with normotension and hematuria/proteinuria patients aged under 40 years showed significant improvements. During the follow-up period, 9.5% of the hematuria patients became hematuric/proteinuric. Hematuria/proteinuria patients had the highest risk of developing renal insufficiency. The presence of hypertension at detection of urinary abnormalities did not affect the renal function; however, if proteinuria appeared after the age of 40 years, these patients had a higher risk of developing renal insufficiency. The incidence of IgA nephropathy in the present subjects was as high as 143 cases per 1 million per year. Conclusion: Detailed follow-up and definitive diagnosis of asymptomatic urinary abnormalities may raise the prevalence of IgA nephropathy worldwide.

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          Nationwide and Long-Term Survey of Primary Glomerulonephritis in Japan as Observed in 1,850 Biopsied Cases

            (1999)
          Primary chronic glomerulonephritis is the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in Japan. The incidence in dialysis patients in Japan is about four times higher than in the United States for reason which are unclear. We conducted a nationwide survey on the natural history and treatment of primary glomerulonephritis under a program project from the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan entitled ‘Progressive Chronic Renal Disease’. We analyzed patient characteristics, disease onset, clinical data, and histological findings in 1,850 patients with primary glomerulonephritis from 53 institutions in 1985 who underwent renal biopsy at least 5 years ago, and the follow-up study was carried out 8 years after registration. The incidence of diffuse-mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis is 41.9%, that of minor glomerular abnormalities 17.5%, and that of focal-mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis 13.0%. Of 1,045 biopsy specimens that were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy, 47.4% showed IgA nephropathy. Half of all cases with primary chronic glomerulonephritis were asymptomatic and were detected on routine health examination. The survival rates at 20 years from the apparent onset or earliest known renal abnormality are: focal glomerular sclerosis 49%, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis 58%, diffuse-mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis 66%, focal-proliferative glomerulonephritis 81%, membranous nephropathy 82%, minor glomerular abnormalities 94%, and IgA nephropathy 61%. In conclusion, a high incidence of IgA nephropathy and a better renal survival of membranous nephropathy are the features of primary chronic glomerulonephritis in Japan. This high incidence of IgA nephropathy together with its poor prognosis is probably the reason for the increased incidence of primary chronic glomerulonephritis in dialysis patients in Japan. In addition, the importance of routine health examination including urinalysis is demonstrated.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            NEF
            Nephron
            10.1159/issn.1660-8151
            Nephron
            S. Karger AG
            1660-8151
            2235-3186
            2002
            May 2002
            02 May 2002
            : 91
            : 1
            : 34-42
            Affiliations
            Institutes of aClinical Medicine and bCommunity Medicine, University of Tsukuba, cDepartment of Nephrology, Hitachi General Hospital, Hitachi, and dDepartment of Internal Medicine, Kamome Clinic, Iwaki, Japan
            Article
            57602 Nephron 2002;91:34–42
            10.1159/000057602
            12021517
            © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

            Page count
            Figures: 3, Tables: 5, References: 28, Pages: 9
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            Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/57602
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