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      Beneficial Effect of Wound Dressings Containing Silver and Silver Nanoparticles in Wound Healing—From Experimental Studies to Clinical Practice

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      Life
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Impaired wound healing affects hundreds of million people around the world; therefore, chronic wounds are a major problem not only for the patient, but also for already overloaded healthcare systems. Chronic wounds are always very susceptible to infections. Billions of dollars are spent to discover new antibiotics as quickly as possible; however, bacterial resistance against antibiotics is rising even faster. For this reason, a complete shift of the antibacterial treatment paradigm is necessary. The development of technology has allowed us to rediscover well-known agents presenting antimicrobial properties with a better outcome. In this context, silver nanoparticles are a promising candidate for use in such therapy. Silver has many useful properties that can be used in the treatment of chronic wounds, such as anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative properties. In the form of nanoparticles, silver agents can work even more effectively and can be more easily incorporated into various dressings. Silver-based dressings are already commercially available; however, innovative combinations are still being discovered and very promising results have been described. In this review article, the authors focused on describing experimental and clinical studies exploring dressings containing either silver or silver nanoparticles, the results of which have been published in recent years.

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          Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, Properties, Applications, and Therapeutic Approaches

          Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.
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            Mechanistic Basis of Antimicrobial Actions of Silver Nanoparticles

            Multidrug resistance of the pathogenic microorganisms to the antimicrobial drugs has become a major impediment toward successful diagnosis and management of infectious diseases. Recent advancements in nanotechnology-based medicines have opened new horizons for combating multidrug resistance in microorganisms. In particular, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a potent antibacterial agent has received much attention. The most critical physico-chemical parameters that affect the antimicrobial potential of AgNPs include size, shape, surface charge, concentration and colloidal state. AgNPs exhibits their antimicrobial potential through multifaceted mechanisms. AgNPs adhesion to microbial cells, penetration inside the cells, ROS and free radical generation, and modulation of microbial signal transduction pathways have been recognized as the most prominent modes of antimicrobial action. On the other side, AgNPs exposure to human cells induces cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory response in human cells in a cell-type dependent manner. This has raised concerns regarding use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery. We have summarized the emerging endeavors that address current challenges in relation to safe use of AgNPs in therapeutics and drug delivery platforms. Based on research done so far, we believe that AgNPs can be engineered so as to increase their efficacy, stability, specificity, biosafety and biocompatibility. In this regard, three perspectives research directions have been suggested that include (1) synthesizing AgNPs with controlled physico-chemical properties, (2) examining microbial development of resistance toward AgNPs, and (3) ascertaining the susceptibility of cytoxicity, genotoxicity, and inflammatory response to human cells upon AgNPs exposure.
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              A review on polymeric hydrogel membranes for wound dressing applications: PVA-based hydrogel dressings

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                LBSIB7
                Life
                Life
                MDPI AG
                2075-1729
                January 2023
                December 26 2022
                : 13
                : 1
                : 69
                Article
                10.3390/life13010069
                36676019
                965e6c3a-2812-4e12-a08f-aef56bc23bd9
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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