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      In vivo and ex vivo effects of propofol on myocardial performance in rats with obstructive jaundice

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          Abstract

          Background

          Responsiveness of the "jaundiced heart" to propofol is not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of propofol on myocardial performance in rats with obstructive jaundice.

          Methods

          Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 40) were randomly allocated into two groups, twenty underwent bile duct ligation (BDL), and 20 underwent a sham operation. Seven days after the surgery, propofol was administered in vivo and ex vivo (Langendorff preparations). Heart rate, left ventricular end-systolic pressure (LVESP) left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), and maximal rate for left ventricular pressure rise and decline (± dP/dt max ) were measured to determine the influence of propofol on the cardiac function of rats.

          Results

          Impaired basal cardiac function was observed in the isolated BDL hearts, whereas in vivo indices of basal cardiac function (LVESP and ± dP/dt) in vivo were significantly higher in rats that underwent BDL compared with controls. With low or intermediate concentrations of propofol, these indices of cardiac function were within the normal physiologic range in both groups, and responsiveness to propofol was unaffected by BDL. When the highest concentration of propofol was administrated, a significant decline in cardiac function was observed in the BDL group.

          Conclusions

          In rats that underwent BDL, basal cardiac performance was better in vivo and worse ex vivo compared with controls. Low and intermediate concentrations of propofol did not appear to impair cardiac function in rats with obstructive jaundice.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Measurement of cardiac function using pressure-volume conductance catheter technique in mice and rats.

          Ventricular pressure-volume relationships have become well established as the most rigorous and comprehensive ways to assess intact heart function. Thanks to advances in miniature sensor technology, this approach has been successfully translated to small rodents, allowing for detailed characterization of cardiovascular function in genetically engineered mice, testing effects of pharmacotherapies and studying disease conditions. This method is unique for providing measures of left ventricular (LV) performance that are more specific to the heart and less affected by vascular loading conditions. Here we present descriptions and movies for procedures employing this method (anesthesia, intubation and surgical techniques, calibrations). We also provide examples of hemodynamics measurements obtained from normal mice/rats, and from animals with cardiac hypertrophy/heart failure, and describe values for various useful load-dependent and load-independent indexes of LV function obtained using different types of anesthesia. The completion of the protocol takes 1-4 h (depending on the experimental design/end points).
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            Propofol: therapeutic indications and side-effects.

             Paul E Marik (2003)
            Propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol) is a potent intravenous hypnotic agent which is widely used for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia and for sedation in the intensive care unit. Propofol is an oil at room temperature and insoluble in aqueous solution. Present formulations consists of 1% or 2% (w/v) propofol, 10% soybean oil, 2.25% glycerol, and 1.2% egg phosphatide. Disodium edetate (EDTA) or metabisulfite is added to retard bacterial and fungal growth. Propofol is a global central nervous system depressant. It directly activates GABA(A) receptors. In addition, propofol inhibits the NMDA receptor and modulates calcium influx through slow calcium ion channels. Propofol has a rapid onset of action with a dose-related hypnotic effect. Recovery is rapid even after prolonged use. Propofol decreases cerebral oxygen consumption, reduces intracranial pressure and has potent anti-convulsant properties. It is a potent antioxidant, has anti-inflammatory properties and is a bronchodilator. As a consequence of these properties propofol is being increasingly used in the management of traumatic head injury, status epilepticus, delirium tremens, status asthmaticus and in critically ill septic patients. Propofol has a remarkable safety profile. Dose dependent hypotension is the commonest complication; particularly in volume depleted patients. Hypertriglyceridemia and pancreatitis are uncommon complications. Allergic complications, which may include bronchospasm, have been reported with the formulation containing metabisulfite. In addition, this formulation has been demonstrated to result in the generation of oxygen free radicals. High dose propofol infusions have been associated with the "propofol syndrome"; this is a potentially fatal complication characterized by severe metabolic acidosis and circulatory collapse. This is a rare complication first reported in pediatric patients and believed to be due to decreased transmembrane electrical potential and alteration of electron transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
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              Context-sensitive half-time in multicompartment pharmacokinetic models for intravenous anesthetic drugs.

              Elimination half-life is the pharmacokinetic parameter used most commonly to describe duration of pharmacologic action, including that expected of intravenous anesthetic drugs administered by continuous infusion. Little consideration has been given, however, to the relevance of elimination half-life in describing plasma (central compartment) drug concentrations in the context of relevant infusion durations. Therefore, simulations were performed with multicompartment pharmacokinetic models for six intravenous anesthetic drugs. These models had elimination half-lives ranging from 111 to 577 min. The input in each simulation was an infusion regimen designed to maintain a constant plasma drug concentration for durations ranging from 1 min to 8 h and until steady state. The time required for the plasma drug concentration to decline by 50% after terminating each infusion in each of the models was determined and was designated the "context-sensitive half-time," where "context" refers to infusion duration. The context-sensitive half-times were markedly different from their respective elimination half-lives and ranged from 1 to 306 min. The half-times were explained by posing each pharmacokinetic model in the form of a hydraulic model. These simulations demonstrate that elimination half-life is of no value in characterizing disposition of intravenous anesthetic drugs during dosing periods relevant to anesthesia. We propose that context-sensitive half-times are a useful descriptor of postinfusion central compartment kinetics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Gastroenterol
                BMC Gastroenterology
                BioMed Central
                1471-230X
                2011
                28 December 2011
                : 11
                : 144
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesia, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgical Hospital, the Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [4 ]Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                Article
                1471-230X-11-144
                10.1186/1471-230X-11-144
                3276443
                22204383
                Copyright ©2011 Ren et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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