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      Relationship and prognostic importance of thyroid hormone and N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide for patients after acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal observational study


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          Altered thyroid function and increased rates of N-terminal pro-B-Type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) are highly prevalent in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with heart failure, and are associated with unfavorable prognosis. This study was undertaken to examine the relationship and prognostic impact of thyroid hormones, inflammatory biomarkers, and NT-pro-BNP on long-term outcomes in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS).


          The study comprised of 642 patients (age 58 ± 10 years, 77 % male) attending an in-patient cardiac rehabilitation program after experiencing ACS. Patients were evaluated for demographic, clinical and CAD risk factors as well as thyroid hormones (e.g., fT3, fT4 level, fT3/fT4 ratio), inflammatory biomarkers (hs-CRP, IL-6) and NT-pro-BNP levels. Data on fT3/fT4 ratio and NT-pro-BNP levels were not normally distributed and were natural-log transformed (ln). Both all-cause (cumulative) and cardiac-related mortality were considered the primary outcomes of interest.


          According to the Cox model, age, NYHA class, (ln)NT-pro-BNP levels (HR 1.53, 95 % CI 1.13–2.07), fT4 level (HR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04–1.27), and (ln)fT3/fT4 ratio (HR 0.08, 95 % CI 0.02–0.32) were the most important predictors of all-cause mortality among CAD patients after ACS. Similarly, age, NYHA class, (ln)NT-pro-BNP levels (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.11–2.36), fT4 (HR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.02–1.29) and (ln)fT3/fT4 ratio (HR 0.10, 95 % CI 0.02–0.55) independently predicted cardiac-related mortality. Kaplan-Meier analyses provided significant prognostic information with the highest risk for all-cause mortality in the low cut off measures of fT3/fT4 ratio <0.206 and NT-pro-BNP ≥290.4 ng/L (HR 2.03, 95 % CI 1.39–2.96) and fT4 level >12.54 pg/ml (HR = 2.34, 95 % CI 1.05–5.18). There was no association between hs-CRP, IL-6 and mortality in CAD patients after ACS.


          Thyroid hormones (i.e., fT4 level and fT3/fT4 ratio) together with NT-pro-BNP level may be valuable and simple predictors of long-term outcomes of CAD patients after experiencing ACS.

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          Thyroid disease and the heart.

          The cardiovascular signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are some of the most profound and clinically relevant findings that accompany both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. On the basis of the understanding of the cellular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart and cardiovascular system, it is possible to explain the changes in cardiac output, cardiac contractility, blood pressure, vascular resistance, and rhythm disturbances that result from thyroid dysfunction. The importance of the recognition of the effects of thyroid disease on the heart also derives from the observation that restoration of normal thyroid function most often reverses the abnormal cardiovascular hemodynamics. In the present review, we discuss the appropriate thyroid function tests to establish a suspected diagnosis as well as the treatment modalities necessary to restore patients to a euthyroid state. We also review the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany chronic congestive heart failure and the approach to the management of patients with amiodarone-induced alterations in thyroid function tests.
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            Inflammatory markers and onset of cardiovascular events: results from the Health ABC study.

            Inflammation plays an important role in cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of several inflammatory markers on the incidence of cardiovascular events in well-functioning older persons. The subjects were 2225 participants 70 to 79 years old, without baseline cardiovascular disease, who were enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Incident coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF) events were detected during an average follow-up of 3.6 years. Blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were assessed. After adjustment for potential confounders, IL-6 was significantly associated with all outcomes (CHD events, per IL-6 SD increase: RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.48; stroke events, per IL-6 SD increase: RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.86; CHF events, per IL-6 SD increase: RR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.40 to 2.12). TNF-alpha showed significant associations with CHD (per TNF-alpha SD increase: RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.43) and CHF (per TNF-alpha SD increase: RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.30 to 1.95) events. CRP was significantly associated with CHF events (per CRP SD increase: RR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.23 to 1.78). A composite summary indicator of inflammation showed a strong association with incident cardiovascular events, with an especially high risk if all 3 inflammatory markers were in the highest tertile. Findings suggest that inflammatory markers are independent predictors of cardiovascular events in older persons.
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              The prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

              Brain (B-type) natriuretic peptide is a neurohormone synthesized predominantly in ventricular myocardium. Although the circulating level of this neurohormone has been shown to provide independent prognostic information in patients with transmural myocardial infarction, few data are available for patients with acute coronary syndromes in the absence of ST-segment elevation. We measured B-type natriuretic peptide in plasma specimens obtained a mean (+/-SD) of 40+/-20 hours after the onset of ischemic symptoms in 2525 patients from the Orbofiban in Patients with Unstable Coronary Syndromes-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 16 study. The base-line level of B-type natriuretic peptide was correlated with the risk of death, heart failure, and myocardial infarction at 30 days and 10 months. The unadjusted rate of death increased in a stepwise fashion among patients in increasing quartiles of base-line B-type natriuretic peptide levels (P< 0.001). This association remained significant in subgroups of patients who had myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation (P=0.02), patients who had myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation (P<0.001), and patients who had unstable angina (P<0.001). After adjustment for independent predictors of the long-term risk of death, the odds ratios for death at 10 months in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of B-type natriuretic peptide were 3.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 13.3), 4.0 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 13.7), and 5.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 19.7). The level of B-type natriuretic peptide was also associated with the risk of new or recurrent myocardial infarction (P=0.01) and new or worsening heart failure (P<0.001) at 10 months. A single measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide, obtained in the first few days after the onset of ischemic symptoms, provides powerful information for use in risk stratification across the spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. This finding suggests that cardiac neurohormonal activation may be a unifying feature among patients at high risk for death after acute coronary syndromes.

                Author and article information

                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovasc Disord
                BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                18 February 2016
                18 February 2016
                : 16
                Behavioral Medicine Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Palanga, Lithuania
                © Brozaitiene et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: European Social Fund under the Global Grant measure
                Award ID: Grant VP1-3.1-SMM-07-K-02-060
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                nt-pro-bnp, thyroid hormones, mortality, coronary artery disease


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