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      EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEY ON CANINE POPULATION WITH THE USE OF IMMUNOLEISH SKIN TEST IN ENDEMIC AREAS OF HUMAN AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

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          Abstract

          A survey for canine tegumentary leishmaniasis (CTL) has been carried out between 1986 and 1993 in seven endemic localities for American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro. 270 dogs have been examined for their clinical aspects, the development of delayed hypersensitivity (DHS) with Immunoleish antigen and with immunofluorescent antibody research of IgG (IF). 28.2% of them had ulcer lesions and 3.3% had scars. The lesions consisted of single (39.5%) and mucocutaneous lesions (31.6%), multiple cutaneous (25.0%) and mucocutaneous lesions associated with cutaneous ulcers (4.0%). Twelve (15.8%) isolates from biopsies were analyzed by zimodeme and schizodeme and identified as L. (V.) braziliensis. The overall prevalence of canine infection that was evaluated with the skin test was of 40.5% and with IF it was of 25.5%. Both tests showed a high positive rate with relation to the animals with mucosal lesions, as in the case of human mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The comparison of the two tests showed the skin test to have a better performance although there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between them. The proportional sensitivity and specificity was of 84.0% and 74.0%, respectively. The Immunoleish skin test and IF are useful tools to be employed in CTL field epidemiological surveys.

          Translated abstract

          Um inquérito epidemiológico em população canina foi realizado em 7 localidades endêmicas de Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA) entre os anos de 1986 a 1993, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Duzentos e setenta cães foram examinados, segundo os parâmetros: clínicos, desenvolvimento de hipersensibilidade tardia e dosagem de anticorpos por imunofluorescência indireta (IFI). 28,2% dos animais possuíam lesões e 3,3% eram portadores de cicatrizes compatíveis com infecção prévia de Leishmania sp. De um total de 98 lesões ulceradas detectadas, 39,5% eram cutâneas únicas, 25,0% lesões cutâneas múltiplas, 31,6% lesões de mucosa e 4,0% lesões de mucosa associadas a lesões cutâneas. Doze amostras (15,8%) colhidas de fragmentos de lesões cutâneas foram analisadas por zimodema e esquizodema e identificadas como Leishmania (V.) braziliensis . A prevalência da infecção canina avaliada pelo teste cutâneo e pela IFI foram respectivamente de 40,5% e 25,5%. A comparação entre as reações mostrou que o teste cutâneo foi superior na detecção da infecção e da doença canina, embora, sem diferença estatística significante (p> 0,05). A sensibilidade e a especificidade proporcional foram respectivamente de 84,0% e 74,0%. A utilização de ambas as reações, cutânea e sorológica mostraram-se úteis como instrumento de diagnóstico epidemiológico em áreas de LTC.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Tegumentary and visceral leishmaniases in Brazil: emerging anthropozoonosis and possibilities for their control

          The existence of a number of different species of Leishmania, the persistent increase in the infection rate of diseases caused by this parasite (tegumentary and visceral forms), the different epidemiological situations found in regions of both recent and older colonization, and the trend towards urbanization have led to the adoption of different strategies to control leishmaniases in Brazil. The control measures involve studies related to the parasite, vectors, sources of infection (animal and human), clinical aspects, geographical distribution, historical and socioeconomic factors, integration of health services, and adequate technologies for diagnosis, treatment, and immunoprophylaxis. Finally, successful control requires work with human communities, involving education, provision of information, health promotion, and participation of these communities in the planning, development, and maintenance of control programs.
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            Leishmaniose visceral no Brasil

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              Statistical methods for rates and proportions

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rimtsp
                Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
                Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo
                Instituto de Medicina Tropical (São Paulo )
                1678-9946
                January 1998
                : 40
                : 1
                : 41-48
                Affiliations
                [1 ] National School of Public Health
                [2 ] Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Brazil
                Article
                S0036-46651998000100009
                10.1590/S0036-46651998000100009
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                TROPICAL MEDICINE

                Infectious disease & Microbiology

                Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Dogs, Survey, Skin test

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