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      Frequency-specific neuromodulation of local and distant connectivity in aging and episodic memory function : Frequency-Specific Neuromodulation

      , , , ,

      Human Brain Mapping

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Most cited references 60

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          Is Open Access

          Modularity and community structure in networks

           M. Newman (2006)
          Many networks of interest in the sciences, including a variety of social and biological networks, are found to divide naturally into communities or modules. The problem of detecting and characterizing this community structure has attracted considerable recent attention. One of the most sensitive detection methods is optimization of the quality function known as "modularity" over the possible divisions of a network, but direct application of this method using, for instance, simulated annealing is computationally costly. Here we show that the modularity can be reformulated in terms of the eigenvectors of a new characteristic matrix for the network, which we call the modularity matrix, and that this reformulation leads to a spectral algorithm for community detection that returns results of better quality than competing methods in noticeably shorter running times. We demonstrate the algorithm with applications to several network data sets.
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            Is Open Access

            Finding and evaluating community structure in networks

             M. Newman,  M Girvan (2003)
            We propose and study a set of algorithms for discovering community structure in networks -- natural divisions of network nodes into densely connected subgroups. Our algorithms all share two definitive features: first, they involve iterative removal of edges from the network to split it into communities, the edges removed being identified using one of a number of possible "betweenness" measures, and second, these measures are, crucially, recalculated after each removal. We also propose a measure for the strength of the community structure found by our algorithms, which gives us an objective metric for choosing the number of communities into which a network should be divided. We demonstrate that our algorithms are highly effective at discovering community structure in both computer-generated and real-world network data, and show how they can be used to shed light on the sometimes dauntingly complex structure of networked systems.
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              Is Open Access

              Functional cartography of complex metabolic networks

               ,   (2005)
              High-throughput techniques are leading to an explosive growth in the size of biological databases and creating the opportunity to revolutionize our understanding of life and disease. Interpretation of these data remains, however, a major scientific challenge. Here, we propose a methodology that enables us to extract and display information contained in complex networks. Specifically, we demonstrate that one can (i) find functional modules in complex networks, and (ii) classify nodes into universal roles according to their pattern of intra- and inter-module connections. The method thus yields a ``cartographic representation'' of complex networks. Metabolic networks are among the most challenging biological networks and, arguably, the ones with more potential for immediate applicability. We use our method to analyze the metabolic networks of twelve organisms from three different super-kingdoms. We find that, typically, 80% of the nodes are only connected to other nodes within their respective modules, and that nodes with different roles are affected by different evolutionary constraints and pressures. Remarkably, we find that low-degree metabolites that connect different modules are more conserved than hubs whose links are mostly within a single module.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Human Brain Mapping
                Hum. Brain Mapp.
                Wiley-Blackwell
                10659471
                December 2017
                December 08 2017
                : 38
                : 12
                : 5987-6004
                Article
                10.1002/hbm.23803
                © 2017

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