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      Neural-Immune Interactions – An Evolutionary Perspective

      Neuroimmunomodulation

      S. Karger AG

      Neuron, Immune system, Invertebrate, Sensory neurons, Injury

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          Abstract

          Efforts to understand how the immune system can influence nervous system function are hampered by the complexity of mammalian nervous and immune systems. The marine mollusc Aplysia californica has recently emerged as a useful model system to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying neural-immune interactions. Aplysia has a relatively simple, well-characterized nervous system that is accessible for intracellular recording. Moreover, it shares with mammals basic cellular defensive responses to non-self or wounded-self, i.e. the accumulation of numerous defense cells (hemocytes) around foreign objects or at injured sites. We have shown that the excitability of a population of nociceptive sensory neurons in Aplysia can be influenced by the presence of hemocytes close to their axons. These sensory neurons also show profound, long-lasting increases in their excitability following axonal injury. Hemocytes are attracted to injured sites on peripheral nerves, and we have developed an in vitro nervous system-hemocyte coculture system to demonstrate that hemocytes can also influence the expression of this injury-induced sensory hyperexcitability. Immunoreactive interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor have been identified in Aplysia. Preliminary in vitro studies showing that IL-1 can modulate the expression of injury-induced sensory hyperexcitability raise the interesting possibility that hemocyte-derived cytokine-like factors can modulate sensory neuron functioning. The relevance of this work to more phylogenetically advanced organisms is also discussed.

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          Most cited references 13

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          The invertebrate phagocytic immunocyte: clues to a common evolution of immune and neuroendocrine systems.

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            Generation of reactive oxygen metabolites by the haemocytes of the mussel Mytilus edulis

             Richard Pipe (1992)
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              Invertebrate immunity — A primer for the non-specialist

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NIM
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                10.1159/issn.1021-7401
                Neuroimmunomodulation
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-6766-4
                978-3-318-00353-6
                1021-7401
                1423-0216
                1998
                August 1998
                04 September 1998
                : 5
                : 3-4
                : 136-142
                Affiliations
                Department of Integrative Biology and Pharmacology, University of Texas, Houston Medical School, Houston, Tex., USA
                Article
                26330 Neuroimmunomodulation 1998;5:136–142
                10.1159/000026330
                9730679
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 51, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Paper

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