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      Prenatal regenerative fetoscopic interventions for congenital anomalies

      BMJ

      BMJ

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          Abstract

          Fetal intervention has progressed in the past two decades from experimental proof-of-concept to practice-adopted, life saving interventions in human fetuses with congenital anomalies. This progress is informed by advances in innovative research, prenatal diagnosis, and fetal surgical techniques. Invasive open hysterotomy, associated with notable maternal-fetal risks, is steadily replaced by less invasive fetoscopic alternatives. A better understanding of the natural history and pathophysiology of congenital diseases has advanced the prenatal regenerative paradigm. By altering the natural course of disease through regrowth or redevelopment of malformed fetal organs, prenatal regenerative medicine has transformed maternal-fetal care. This review discusses the uses of regenerative medicine in the prenatal diagnosis and management of three congenital diseases: congenital diaphragmatic hernia, lower urinary tract obstruction, and spina bifida.

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          Most cited references 159

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          Lung organogenesis.

          Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the "molecular embryology" of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged-and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            Spina bifida.

            Spina bifida results from failure of fusion of the caudal neural tube, and is one of the most common malformations of human structure. The causes of this disorder are heterogeneous and include chromosome abnormalities, single gene disorders, and teratogenic exposures. However, the cause is not known in most cases. Up to 70% of spina bifida cases can be prevented by maternal, periconceptional folic acid supplementation. The mechanism underlying this protective effect is unknown, but it is likely to include genes that regulate folate transport and metabolism. Individuals with spina bifida need both surgical and medical management. Although surgical closure of the malformation is generally done in the neonatal period, a randomised clinical trial to assess in utero closure of spina bifida has been initiated in the USA. Medical management is a lifelong necessity for individuals with spina bifida, and should be provided by a multidisciplinary team.
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              INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION OF FOETUS IN HAEMOLYTIC DISEASE.

               A LILEY (1963)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ
                BMJ
                BMJ
                1756-1833
                July 01 2020
                : m1624
                Article
                10.1136/bmj.m1624
                © 2020
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