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      The Interaction between Heart Failure, Renal Failure and Anemia – The Cardio-Renal Anemia Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Background: Many patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have chronic kidney insufficiency (CKI) and anemia. Aims: The purpose of this review is to clarify the relationship between these three factors and to study the effect of correction of anemia in CHF and CKI. Findings: Anemia, CHF and CKI are each capable of causing or worsening each other. Thus they form a vicious circle which can result in progressive CHF, CKI and anemia. Aggressive therapy of CHF, CKI and control of the associated anemia with erythropoietin and i.v. iron can prevent the progression of CHF and CKI, reduce hospitalization, and improve quality of life. Conclusion: CHF patients are a major source of end-stage renal failure patients and deserve special attention. If treated well and early, progressive heart failure and renal failure can be prevented. Cooperation between nephrologists, cardiologists, and other internists will improve the care of all three conditions and prevent their progression.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Heart failure.

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            Poor long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients on long-term dialysis.

            Cardiovascular disease is common in patients on long-term dialysis, and it accounts for 44 percent of overall mortality in this group. We undertook a study to assess long-term survival after acute myocardial infarction among patients in the United States who were receiving long-term dialysis. Patients on dialysis who were hospitalized during the period from 1977 to 1995 for a first myocardial infarction after the initiation of renal-replacement therapy were retrospectively identified from the U.S. Renal Data System data base. Overall mortality and mortality from cardiac causes (including all in-hospital deaths) were estimated by the life-table method. The effect of independent predictors on survival was examined in a Cox regression model with adjustment for existing illnesses. The overall mortality (+/-SE) after acute myocardial infarction among 34,189 patients on long-term dialysis was 59.3+/-0.3 percent at one year, 73.0+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 89.9+/-0.2 percent at five years. The mortality from cardiac causes was 40.8+/-0.3 percent at one year, 51.8+/-0.3 percent at two years, and 70.2+/-0.4 percent at five years. Patients who were older or had diabetes had higher mortality than patients without these characteristics. Adverse outcomes occurred even in patients who had acute myocardial infarction in 1990 through 1995. Also, the mortality rate after myocardial infarction was considerably higher for patients on long-term dialysis than for renal-transplant recipients. Patients on dialysis who have acute myocardial infarction have high mortality from cardiac causes and poor long-term survival.
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              Reduced kidney function and anemia as risk factors for mortality in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.

              We sought to evaluate the relationship between the level of kidney function, level of hematocrit and their interaction on all-cause mortality in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Anemia and reduced kidney function occur frequently in patients with heart failure. The level of hematocrit and its relationship with renal function have not been evaluated as risk factors for mortality in patients with LV dysfunction. We retrospectively examined the Studies Of LV Dysfunction (SOLVD) database. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was predicted using a recently validated formula. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were used to compare survival times between groups stratified by level of kidney function (predicted GFR) and hematocrit. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to explore the relationship of survival time to level of kidney function, hematocrit and their interaction. Lower GFR and hematocrit were associated with a higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. In univariate analysis, reduced kidney function and lower hematocrit, in men and in women, were risk factors for all-cause mortality (p < 0.001 for both). After adjustment for other factors significant in univariate analysis, a 10 ml/min/1.73 m(2) lower GFR and a 1% lower hematocrit were associated with a 1.064 (95% CI: 1.033, 1.096) and 1.027 (95% CI: 1.015, 1.038) higher risk for mortality, respectively. At lower GFR and lower hematocrit, the risk was higher (p = 0.022 for the interaction) than that predicted by both factors independently. Decreased kidney function and anemia are risk factors for all-cause mortality in patients with LV dysfunction, especially when both are present. These relationships need to be confirmed in additional studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2004
                May 2004
                09 July 2004
                : 22
                : 3
                : 277-284
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology and Cardiology, Tel Aviv Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel
                Article
                78698 Blood Purif 2004;22:277–284
                10.1159/000078698
                15166489
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 78, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/78698
                Categories
                Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Erythropoietin, Iron, Anemia, Heart failure, Kidney insufficiency

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