Background: Many patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) have chronic kidney insufficiency (CKI) and anemia. Aims: The purpose of this review is to clarify the relationship between these three factors and to study the effect of correction of anemia in CHF and CKI. Findings: Anemia, CHF and CKI are each capable of causing or worsening each other. Thus they form a vicious circle which can result in progressive CHF, CKI and anemia. Aggressive therapy of CHF, CKI and control of the associated anemia with erythropoietin and i.v. iron can prevent the progression of CHF and CKI, reduce hospitalization, and improve quality of life. Conclusion: CHF patients are a major source of end-stage renal failure patients and deserve special attention. If treated well and early, progressive heart failure and renal failure can be prevented. Cooperation between nephrologists, cardiologists, and other internists will improve the care of all three conditions and prevent their progression.