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Plant secondary metabolites in nectar: impacts on pollinators and ecological functions

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Functional Ecology

Wiley-Blackwell

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      Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance.

      The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed. Overall, wild insects pollinated crops more effectively; an increase in wild insect visitation enhanced fruit set by twice as much as an equivalent increase in honey bee visitation. Visitation by wild insects and honey bees promoted fruit set independently, so pollination by managed honey bees supplemented, rather than substituted for, pollination by wild insects. Our results suggest that new practices for integrated management of both honey bees and diverse wild insect assemblages will enhance global crop yields.
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        Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory.

        Addiction is a state of compulsive drug use; despite treatment and other attempts to control drug taking, addiction tends to persist. Clinical and laboratory observations have converged on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological usurpation of neural processes that normally serve reward-related learning. The major substrates of persistent compulsive drug use are hypothesized to be molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie long-term associative memories in several forebrain circuits (involving the ventral and dorsal striatum and prefrontal cortex) that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons. Here we review progress in identifying candidate mechanisms of addiction.
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          The raison d'ĕtre of secondary plant substances; these odd chemicals arose as a means of protecting plants from insects and now guide insects to food.

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Functional Ecology
            Funct Ecol
            Wiley-Blackwell
            02698463
            January 2017
            January 03 2017
            : 31
            : 1
            : 65-75
            10.1111/1365-2435.12761
            © 2017

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1

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