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      Immunohistochemical Localization of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, Angiotensin II and AT1 Receptor in Human Ocular Tissues

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          Abstract

          We investigated the immunohistochemical distribution of 3 components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (AngII) and AT1 receptor (AT1), in the human eye. ACE and AngII were localized to nonpigmented epithelial cells of the ciliary body, to endothelial and epithelial cells of the cornea, to epithelial cells of the conjunctiva and to trabecular meshwork cells in the anterior part of the eye. In the posterior part of the eye, ACE and AngII were localized to ganglion cells, some cells in the inner nuclear layer, photoreceptor cells and to endothelial cells of the retinal and choroidal vessels. The overall intensity of AT1 immunoreactivity was weak in all ocular tissues, but the main localization was in ganglion cells. As a preliminary investigation, we were able to include 2 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) cases. In AD, no differences from controls were found in the cellular distribution and staining intensity of all 3 antigens. The manifold localization sites of the observed antigens point to rather generalized functions of the RAS in human ocular tissues, such as regulatory effects on neuronal cells, vessels and vitreous humor homeostasis.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Suprachiasmatic nucleus in the mouse: retinal innervation, intrinsic organization and efferent projections.

          The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal circadian pacemaker of the mammalian circadian timing system. The SCN is composed of two anatomically and functionally distinct subdivisions, designated core and shell, which can be distinguished on the basis of their chemoarchitecture and connections in the rat. In the present study, we examine the intrinsic organization and the afferent and efferent connections of the mouse SCN using immunocytochemistry and ocular injections of cholera toxin. Neurons of the SCN shell contain GABA, calbindin (CALB), arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (AII) and met-enkephalin (mENK), and receive input from galanin (GAL) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive fibers. Neurons of the SCN core synthesize GABA, CALB, VIP, calretinin (CALR), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), and neurotensin (NT), and receive input from the retina and from fibers that contain neuropeptide Y (NPY) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT). Fibers projecting from SCN neurons that are immunoreactive for AVP and VIP exhibit a characteristic morphology, and project to the lateral septum, a series of medial hypothalamic areas extending from the preoptic to the posterior hypothalamic area and to the paraventricular thalamic nucleus. The organization of the mouse SCN, and its connections, are similar to that in other mammalian species.
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            Direct stimulation of Jak/STAT pathway by the angiotensin II AT1 receptor.

            The peptide angiotensin II is the effector molecule of the reninangiotensin system. All the haemodynamic effects of angiotensin II, including vasoconstriction and adrenal aldosterone release, are mediated through a single class of cell-surface receptors known as AT1 (refs 1, 2). These receptors contain the structural features of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily. We show here that angiotensin II induces the rapid phosphorylation of tyrosine in the intracellular kinases Jak2 and Tyk2 in rat aortic smooth-muscle cells and that this phosphorylation is associated with increased activity of Jak2. The Jak family substrates STAT1 and STAT2 (for signal transducers and activators of transcription) are rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to angiotensin II. We also find that Jak2 co-precipitates with the AT1 receptor, indicating that G-protein-coupled receptors may be able to signal through the intracellular phosphorylation pathways used by cytokine receptors.
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              Angiotensin-forming enzyme in brain tissue.

              A renin-like enzyme is present in brain tissue and is independent of kidney and plasma renin. In the presence of homologous substrate it forms angiotensin. Administration of aldosterone significantly decreases this angiotensinforming enzyme activity, while administration of progesterone markedly enhances it.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2004
                December 2004
                23 December 2004
                : 36
                : 6
                : 312-320
                Affiliations
                aPsychiatric University Clinic, University of Basel, and bUniversity Eye Clinic, Basel, Switzerland; cUniversity Eye Clinic, Friedrich Wilhelm University, Bonn, Germany
                Article
                81633 Ophthalmic Res 2004;36:312–320
                10.1159/000081633
                15627831
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 45, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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