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      Reversing established sepsis with antagonists of endogenous high-mobility group box 1

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          Abstract

          Despite significant advances in intensive care therapy and antibiotics, severe sepsis accounts for 9% of all deaths in the United States annually. The pathological sequelae of sepsis are characterized by a systemic inflammatory response, but experimental therapeutics that target specific early inflammatory mediators [tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1beta] have not proven efficacious in the clinic. We recently identified high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a late mediator of endotoxin-induced lethality that exhibits significantly delayed kinetics relative to TNF and IL-1beta. Here, we report that serum HMGB1 levels are increased significantly in a standardized model of murine sepsis, beginning 18 h after surgical induction of peritonitis. Specific inhibition of HMGB1 activity [with either anti-HMGB1 antibody (600 microg per mouse) or the DNA-binding A box (600 microg per mouse)] beginning as late as 24 h after surgical induction of peritonitis significantly increased survival (nonimmune IgG-treated controls = 28% vs. anti-HMGB1 antibody group = 72%, P < 0.03; GST control protein = 28% vs. A box = 68%, P < 0.03). Animals treated with either HMGB1 antagonist were protected against the development of organ injury, as evidenced by improved levels of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. These observations demonstrate that specific inhibition of endogenous HMGB1 therapeutically reverses lethality of established sepsis indicating that HMGB1 inhibitors can be administered in a clinically relevant time frame.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Anti-cachectin/TNF monoclonal antibodies prevent septic shock during lethal bacteraemia.

          Bacterial infection of the mammalian bloodstream can lead to overwhelming sepsis, a potentially fatal syndrome of irreversible cardiovascular collapse (shock) and critical organ failure. Cachectin, also known as tumour necrosis factor, is a macrophage-derived peptide hormone released in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, and it has been implicated as a principal mediator of endotoxic shock, although its function in bacterial sepsis is not known. Anaesthetized baboons were passively immunized against endogenous cachectin and subsequently infused with an LD100 dose of live Escherichia coli. Control animals (not immunized against cachectin) developed hypotension followed by lethal renal and pulmonary failure. Neutralizing monoclonal anti-cachectin antibody fragments (F(ab')2) administered to baboons only one hour before bacterial challenge protected against shock, but did not prevent critical organ failure. Complete protection against shock, vital organ dysfunction, persistent stress hormone release and death was conferred by administration of antibodies 2 h before bacterial infusion. These results indicate that cachectin is a mediator of fatal bacteraemic shock, and suggest that antibodies against cachectin offer a potential therapy of life-threatening infection.
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            Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin.

            Cachectin (tumor necrosis factor), a protein produced in large quantities by endotoxin-activated macrophages, has been implicated as an important mediator of the lethal effect of endotoxin. Recombinant human cachectin was infused into rats in an effort to determine whether cachectin, by itself, can elicit the derangements of host physiology caused by administration of endotoxin. When administered in quantities similar to those produced endogenously in response to endotoxin, cachectin causes hypotension, metabolic acidosis, hemoconcentration, and death within minutes to hours, as a result of respiratory arrest. Hyperglycemia and hyperkalemia were also observed after infusion. At necropsy, diffuse pulmonary inflammation and hemorrhage were apparent on gross and histopathologic examination, along with ischemic and hemorrhagic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, and acute renal tubular necrosis. Thus, it appears that a single protein mediator (cachectin) is capable of inducing many of the deleterious effects of endotoxin.
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              Secretory products of macrophages.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                January 06 2004
                January 06 2004
                December 26 2003
                January 06 2004
                : 101
                : 1
                : 296-301
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.2434651100
                314179
                14695889
                © 2004
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