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      Biogas Production from Physicochemically Pretreated Grass Lawn Waste: Comparison of Different Process Schemes

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          Abstract

          Various pretreatment methods, such as thermal, alkaline and acid, were applied on grass lawn (GL) waste and the effect of each pretreatment method on the Biochemical Methane Potential was evaluated for two options, namely using the whole slurry resulting from pretreatment or the separate solid and liquid fractions obtained. In addition, the effect of each pretreatment on carbohydrate solubilization and lignocellulossic content fractionation (to cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) was also evaluated. The experimental results showed that the methane yield was enhanced with alkaline pretreatment and, the higher the NaOH concentration (20 g/100 gTotal Solids (TS)), the higher was the methane yield observed (427.07 L CH 4/kg Volatile Solids (VS), which was almost 25.7% higher than the BMP of the untreated GL). Comparing the BMP obtained under the two options, i.e., that of the whole pretreatment slurry with the sum of the BMPs of both fractions, it was found that direct anaerobic digestion without separation of the pretreated biomass was favored, in almost all cases. A preliminary energy balance and economic assessment indicated that the process could be sustainable, leading to a positive net heat energy only when using a more concentrated pretreated slurry (i.e., 20% organic loading), or when applying NaOH pretreatment at a lower chemical loading.

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          Most cited references 34

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          The use of high-solids loadings in biomass pretreatment--a review.

          The use of high-solids loadings (≥ 15% solids, w/w) in the unit operations of lignocellulose conversion processes potentially offers many advantages over lower-solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations and decreased production and capital costs. Since the term lignocellulosic materials refers to a wide range of feedstocks (agricultural and forestry residues, distillery by-products, and dedicated energy crops like grasses), the term "solids loading" here is defined by the amount of dry material that enters the process divided by the total mass of material and water added to the material. The goal of this study is to provide a consolidated review of studies using a high-solids pretreatment step in the conversion process. Included in this review is a brief discussion of the limitations, such as the lack of available water to promote mass transfer, increased substrate viscosity, and increased concentration of inhibitors produced affecting pretreatment, as well as descriptions and findings of pretreatment studies performed at high solids, the latest reactor designs developed for pretreatment at bench- and pilot-scales to address some of the limitations, and high-solids pretreatment operations that have been scaled-up and incorporated into demonstration facilities. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Dilute-Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment of Corn Stover in Pilot-Scale Reactor: Investigation of Yields, Kinetics, and Enzymatic Digestibilities of Solids

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              Review of feedstock pretreatment strategies for improved anaerobic digestion: From lab-scale research to full-scale application.

              When properly designed, pretreatments may enhance the methane potential and/or anaerobic digestion rate, improving digester performance. This paper aims at providing some guidelines on the most appropriate pretreatments for the main feedstocks of biogas plants. Waste activated sludge was firstly investigated and implemented at full-scale, its thermal pretreatment with steam explosion being most recommended as it increases the methane potential and digestion rate, ensures sludge sanitation and the heat needed is produced on-site. Regarding fatty residues, saponification is preferred for enhancing their solubilisation and bioavailability. In the case of animal by-products, this pretreatment can be optimised to ensure sterilisation, solubilisation and to reduce inhibition linked to long chain fatty acids. With regards to lignocellulosic biomass, the first goal should be delignification, followed by hemicellulose and cellulose hydrolysis, alkali or biological (fungi) pretreatments being most promising. As far as microalgae are concerned, thermal pretreatment seems the most promising technique so far.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Molecules
                Molecules
                molecules
                Molecules
                MDPI
                1420-3049
                11 January 2020
                January 2020
                : 25
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences, Stadiou, Platani, GR 26504 Patras, Greece; dvagenas@ 123456chemeng.upatras.gr (D.V.); lyberatos@ 123456chemeng.ntua.gr (G.L.)
                [2 ]Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, GR 26500 Patras, Greece
                [3 ]School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, GR 15780 Athens, Greece
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: geogant@ 123456chemeng.upatras.gr ; Tel.: +30-26-1096-5318
                Article
                molecules-25-00296
                10.3390/molecules25020296
                7024254
                31940836
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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