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      Iron islands in the Amazon: investigating plant beta diversity of canga outcrops

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          Abstract

          The world’s largest mineral iron province, Serra dos Carajás, is home to an open vegetation known as canga, found on top of isolated outcrops rising out of the Amazon rainforest. Over one thousand vascular plants species have been recorded in these canga sites, including 38 edaphic endemics. A new survey adds to our investigation of biogeographic relationships between sixteen canga outcrops and the effect of the distance between site pairs on the number of shared species, regional species turnover and species distribution patterns. Plant collecting expeditions to the westernmost site, the Serra de Campos of São Félix do Xingu (SFX), were carried out followed by the identification of all collected specimens and the creation of a species database, built to perform biogeographical analyses. Floristic relationships among the sites were investigated regarding their similarity, using multivariate analyses. The correlation between canga areas and species richness was tested, as well as the geographical distance between pairs of outcrops and their shared species. Vascular plants at SFX total 254 species including 17 edaphic endemics. All canga sites are grouped with 25% of minimum similarity, and the SFX falls within a large subgroup of outcrops. The total species number shared between site pairs does not change significantly with geographical distance but is positively correlated with the area of each outcrop. Meanwhile, shared endemic species numbers between site pairs decline when geographical distance increases, possibly imposed by the barrier of the rainforest. Our data suggest higher shared similarity between the largest and species-richest sites as opposed to geographically nearby sites, and provide useful insight for drafting conservation and compensation measures for canga locations. The size of the canga outcrops is associated to higher floristic diversity but connectivity among islands also plays a role in their similarity.

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            A brief history of seed size.

            Improved phylogenies and the accumulation of broad comparative data sets have opened the way for phylogenetic analyses to trace trait evolution in major groups of organisms. We arrayed seed mass data for 12,987 species on the seed plant phylogeny and show the history of seed size from the emergence of the angiosperms through to the present day. The largest single contributor to the present-day spread of seed mass was the divergence between angiosperms and gymnosperms, whereas the widest divergence was between Celastraceae and Parnassiaceae. Wide divergences in seed size were more often associated with divergences in growth form than with divergences in dispersal syndrome or latitude. Cross-species studies and evolutionary theory are consistent with this evidence that growth form and seed size evolve in a coordinated manner.
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              Plant communities on ironstone outcrops: a diverse and endangered Brazilian ecosystem

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:F7FCE910-8E78-573F-9C77-7788555F8AAD
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2020
                28 October 2020
                : 165
                : 1-25
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Instituto Tecnológico Vale, Belém, Pará, Brazil Instituto Tecnológico Vale Belém Brazil
                [2 ] Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Coordenação Botânica, Belém, Pará, Brazil Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi Belém Brazil
                [3 ] Instituto de Ciências do Mar (Labomar), Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil Universidade Federal do Ceará Fortaleza Brazil
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Caroline Oliveira Andrino ( coliveiraandrino@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: Ricarda Riina

                Article
                54819
                10.3897/phytokeys.165.54819
                7642173
                Caroline Oliveira Andrino, Rafael Gomes Barbosa-Silva, Juliana Lovo, Pedro Lage Viana, Marcelo Freire Moro, Daniela Cristina Zappi

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Angiospermae
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Biogeography
                Catalogues and Checklists
                Floristics & Distribution
                Taxonomy
                Amazon Basin
                Brazil
                South America

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