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      Novel crosslinking methods to design hydrogels

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      Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews

      Elsevier BV

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          Most cited references 162

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          Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations.

           N. Peppas (2000)
          The availability of large molecular weight protein- and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances in the field of molecular biology has given us new ways to treat a number of diseases. Synthetic hydrogels offer a possibly effective and convenient way to administer these compounds. Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional networks, which are able to imbibe large amounts of water or biological fluids, and thus resemble, to a large extent, a biological tissue. They are insoluble due to the presence of chemical (tie-points, junctions) and/or physical crosslinks such as entanglements and crystallites. These materials can be synthesized to respond to a number of physiological stimuli present in the body, such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. The aim of this article is to present a concise review on the applications of hydrogels in the pharmaceutical field, hydrogel characterization and analysis of drug release from such devices.
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            Novel injectable neutral solutions of chitosan form biodegradable gels in situ.

             A Chenite,  C Chaput,  D. Wang (2000)
            A novel approach to provide, thermally sensitive neutral solutions based on chitosan/polyol salt combinations is described. These formulations possess a physiological pH and can be held liquid below room temperature for encapsulating living cells and therapeutic proteins; they form monolithic gels at body temperature. When injected in vivo the liquid formulations turn into gel implants in situ. This system was used successfully to deliver biologically active growth factors in vivo as well as an encapsulating matrix for living chondrocytes for tissue engineering applications. This study reports for the first time the use of polymer/polyol salt aqueous solutions as gelling systems, suggesting the discovery of a prototype for a new family of thermosetting gels highly compatible with biological compounds.
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              Protein release from alginate matrices.

               W Gombotz (1998)
              There are a variety of both natural and synthetic polymeric systems that have been investigated for the controlled release of proteins. Many of the procedures employed to incorporate proteins into a polymeric matrix can be harsh and often cause denaturation of the active agent. Alginate, a naturally occurring biopolymer extracted from brown algae (kelp), has several unique properties that have enabled it to be used as a matrix for the entrapment and/or delivery of a variety of biological agents. Alginate polymers are a family of linear unbranched polysaccharides which contain varying amounts of 1,4'-linked beta-D-mannuronic acid and alpha-L-guluronic acid residues. The residues may vary widely in composition and sequence and are arranged in a pattern of blocks along the chain. Alginate can be ionically crosslinked by the addition of divalent cations in aqueous solution. The relatively mild gelation process has enabled not only proteins, but cells and DNA to be incorporated into alginate matrices with retention of full biological activity. Furthermore, by selection of the type of alginate and coating agent, the pore size, degradation rate, and ultimately release kinetics can be controlled. Gels of different morphologies can be prepared including large block matrices, large beads (>1 mm in diameter) and microbeads (<0.2 mm in diameter). In situ gelling systems have also been made by the application of alginate to the cornea, or on the surfaces of wounds. Alginate is a bioadhesive polymer which can be advantageous for the site specific delivery to mucosal tissues. All of these properties, in addition to the nonimmunogenicity of alginate, have led to an increased use of this polymer as a protein delivery system. This review will discuss the chemistry of alginate, its gelation mechanisms, and the physical properties of alginate gels. Emphasis will be placed on applications in which biomolecules have been incorporated into and released from alginate systems.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
                Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
                Elsevier BV
                0169409X
                January 2002
                January 2002
                : 54
                : 1
                : 13-36
                Article
                10.1016/S0169-409X(01)00240-X
                © 2002

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