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      ACE gene polymorphism is associated with COPD and COPD with pulmonary hypertension: a meta-analysis

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE) gene I/D polymorphism has been studied in relation to the susceptibility to COPD and COPD with pulmonary hypertension (PH) with inconclusive results. We performed the first comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate accurately the association between the ACE gene polymorphism and the risk of COPD.

          Methods

          Data were analyzed using odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% CIs to measure the strength of the models. Subgroup analyses were conducted by ethnicity and complication which referred to PH.

          Results

          In total, 15 studies (2,635 participants) were included in our study, of which four studies (288 participants) were for PH subgroup. The overall analysis results indicated that the ACE gene polymorphism was not associated with COPD susceptibility in all gene models. However, the ethnic subgroup analysis results indicated that ACE gene polymorphism was associated with Asians’ susceptibility to COPD (DD+DI vs II, OR=1.47, P=0.019, 95% CI: 1.07–2.02). Further, the overall results of the present study detected no statistical significance between ACE gene polymorphism and the risk of COPD with PH, but the homozygote variant (DD) increased the risk of PH in Asian COPD patients (DD vs ID+II, OR=2.05, P=0.05, 95% CI: 1.00–4.19).

          Conclusion

          The current study suggests that ACE polymorphism, particularly the homozygote variant (DD), might contribute to the risk of COPD and COPD with PH among Asians. Further studies with larger sample size and more ethnicities are expected to be conducted in the future to validate the results.

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          Most cited references 32

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          An official American Thoracic Society public policy statement: Novel risk factors and the global burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Although cigarette smoking is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a substantial proportion of COPD cases cannot be explained by smoking alone. To evaluate the risk factors for COPD besides personal cigarette smoking. We constituted an ad hoc subcommittee of the American Thoracic Society Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly. An international group of members was invited, based on their scientific expertise in a specific risk factor for COPD. For each risk factor area, the committee reviewed the literature, summarized the evidence, and developed conclusions about the likelihood of it causing COPD. All conclusions were based on unanimous consensus. The population-attributable fraction for smoking as a cause of COPD ranged from 9.7 to 97.9%, but was less than 80% in most studies, indicating a substantial burden of disease attributable to nonsmoking risk factors. On the basis of our review, we concluded that specific genetic syndromes and occupational exposures were causally related to the development of COPD. Traffic and other outdoor pollution, secondhand smoke, biomass smoke, and dietary factors are associated with COPD, but sufficient criteria for causation were not met. Chronic asthma and tuberculosis are associated with irreversible loss of lung function, but there remains uncertainty about whether there are important phenotypic differences compared with COPD as it is typically encountered in clinical settings. In public health terms, a substantive burden of COPD is attributable to risk factors other than smoking. To prevent COPD-related disability and mortality, efforts must focus on prevention and cessation of exposure to smoking and these other, less well-recognized risk factors.
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            Inflammatory reaction in pulmonary muscular arteries of patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

            Endothelial dysfunction and intimal thickening have been shown in pulmonary arteries (PA) of patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To investigate whether an inflammatory process related to tobacco smoking might be involved in the development of pulmonary vascular abnormalities in COPD, we characterized the inflammatory cell infiltrate and the endothelium-dependent relaxation in PA of 39 patients who underwent lung resection, divided into three groups: "nonsmokers" (n = 7); "smokers," with normal lung function (n = 12); and "COPD" (n = 20). Endothelium-dependent relaxation was assessed in vitro by exposing PA rings to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Inflammatory cell types were identified by immunohistochemistry. PA of COPD patients developed lower relaxation in response to ADP than nonsmokers and smokers. The number of inflammatory cells was increased in PA of COPD compared with the other two groups. This cell infiltrate was largely constituted by T lymphocytes. The CD8(+) T-cell subset was increased in both smokers and COPD compared with nonsmokers, yielding a reduction of the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio. The intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate correlated with both the endothelium-dependent relaxation and the intimal thickness. We conclude that cigarette smoking induces a CD8(+) T-lymphocyte infiltrate in PA, which is associated with the impairment of the vessel's structure and function, suggesting the potential involvement of an inflammatory process in the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular abnormalities in the early stage of COPD.
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              Impact of statins and ACE inhibitors on mortality after COPD exacerbations

              Background The purpose of our study was to examine the association of prior outpatient use of statins and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors on mortality for subjects ≥ 65 years of age hospitalized with acute COPD exacerbations. Methods We conducted a retrospective national cohort study using Veterans Affairs administrative data including subjects ≥65 years of age hospitalized with a COPD exacerbation. Our primary analysis was a multilevel model with the dependent variable of 90-day mortality and hospital as a random effect, controlling for preexisting comorbid conditions, demographics, and other medications prescribed. Results We identified 11,212 subjects with a mean age of 74.0 years, 98% were male, and 12.4% of subjects died within 90-days of hospital presentation. In this cohort, 20.3% of subjects were using statins, 32.0% were using ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB). After adjusting for potential confounders, current statin use (odds ratio 0.51, 95% confidence interval 0.40–0.64) and ACE inhibitor/ARB use (0.55, 0.46–0.66) were significantly associated with decreased 90-day mortality. Conclusion Use of statins and ACE inhibitors prior to admission is associated with decreased mortality in subjects hospitalized with a COPD exacerbation. Randomized controlled trials are needed to examine whether the use of these medications are protective for those patients with COPD exacerbations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2018
                13 August 2018
                : 13
                : 2435-2446
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Center of Gerontology and Geriatrics, West China Hospital/West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital/West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People’s Republic of China, fanhongfan@ 123456qq.com
                [3 ]Department of Gerontology, No 4 West China Teaching Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Hong Fan, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, West China Hospital/West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Guoxuexiang 37, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 28 8542 3520, Email fanhongfan@ 123456qq.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-13-2435
                10.2147/COPD.S168772
                6097829
                © 2018 Ma et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                meta-analysis, ace, susceptibility, polymorphism, pulmonary hypertension, copd

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