The Neotropic region has high fish diversity associated with freshwater habitats. However, for Maranhão state, most publications on the ichthyofauna concentrate on coastal or estuarine ecosystems. In this study, species of fish were sampled in lentic and lotic habitats in Cerrado areas (Cerradão phytophysiognomy) and in restinga areas (Atlantic Forest phytophysiognomy) in northeastern Maranhão state between January and July 2010. Thirteen species from 10 families and 6 orders were captured. Species richness was highest for the orders Characiformes and Gymnotiformes. Our results are the first records of the ichthyofauna of coastal drainage areas of northeastern Maranhão state, contributing to the understanding of the biodiversity of the Munim and Parnaíba River basins, and suggest the existence of a community that shares elements with those of the Amazon and Caatinga biomes.