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      Clinically Immature Arteriovenous Hemodialysis Fistulas: Effect of US on Salvage

      , , ,
      Radiology
      Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)

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          Increasing arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients: problems and solutions.

          National guidelines promote increasing the prevalence of fistula use among hemodialysis patients. The prevalence of fistulas among hemodialysis patients reflects both national, regional, and local practice differences as well as patient-specific demographic and clinical factors. Increasing fistula prevalence requires increasing fistula placement, improving maturation of new fistulas, and enhancing long-term patency of mature fistulas for dialysis. Whether a patient receives a fistula depends on several factors: timing of referral for dialysis and vascular access, type of fistula placed, patient demographics, preference of the nephrologist, surgeon, and dialysis nurses, and vascular anatomy of the patient. Whether the placed fistula is useable for dialysis depends on additional factors, including adequacy of vessels, surgeon's experience, patient demographics, nursing skills, minimal acceptable dialysis blood flow, and attempts to revise immature fistulas. Whether a mature fistula achieves long-term patency depends on the ability to prevent and correct thrombosis. An optimal outcome is likely when there is (1) a multidisciplinary team approach to vascular access; (2) consensus about the goals among all interested parties (nephrologists, surgeons, radiologists, dialysis nurses, and patients); (3) early referral for placement of vascular access; (4) restriction of vascular access procedures to surgeons with demonstrable interest and experience; (5) routine, preoperative mapping of the patient's arteries and veins; (6) close, ongoing communication among the involved parties; and (7) prospective tracking of outcomes with continuous quality assessment. Implementing these measures is likely to increase the prevalence of fistulas in any given dialysis unit. However, differences among dialysis units are likely to persist because of differences in gender, race, and co-morbidity mix of the patient population.
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            Hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula maturity: US evaluation.

            To compare various objective ultrasonographic (US) criteria for native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation with subsequent fistula outcomes and clinical evaluation by experienced dialysis nurses. US fistula evaluation results were analyzed retrospectively in 69 patients within 4 months after AVF placement; adequacy for dialysis was known in 54. Measurements included minimum venous diameter and blood flow rate. Experienced dialysis nurses examined 30 fistulas clinically. Predictors of fistula adequacy were analyzed with univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Mean fistula diameters and blood flow rates were compared by using analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests. Fistula adequacy for dialysis doubled if the minimum venous diameter was 0.4 cm or greater (89% [24 of 27]) versus less than 0.4 cm (44% [12 of 27]; P <.001). Fistula adequacy for dialysis was nearly doubled if flow volume was 500 mL/min or greater (84% [26 of 31]) versus less than 500 mL/min (43% [nine of 21]; P =.002). Combining venous diameter and flow volume increased fistula adequacy predictive value: minimum venous diameter of 0.4 cm or greater and flow volume of 500 mL/min or greater (95% [19 of 20]) versus neither criterion met (33% [five of 15]; P =.002). Women were less likely to have an adequate fistula diameter of 0.4 cm or greater: 40% (12 of 30) of women versus 69% (27 of 39; P =.015) of men. No significant differences in blood flow or minimum venous diameter were found during 2-4 postoperative months. Experienced dialysis nurses' accuracy in predicting eventual fistula maturity was 80% (24 of 30). US measurements of AVF at 2-4 months in patients undergoing hemodialysis are highly predictive of fistula maturation and adequacy for dialysis.
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              A strategy for increasing use of autogenous hemodialysis access procedures: impact of preoperative noninvasive evaluation.

              We studied the efficacy of preoperative noninvasive assessment of the upper extremity to identify arteries and veins suitable for hemodialysis access to increase our use of autogenous fistulas (AF). From Sep. 1, 1994, to Apr. 1, 1997, 172 patients who required chronic hemodialysis underwent segmental upper extremity Doppler pressures and duplex ultrasound with mapping of arteries and veins. The following criteria were necessary for satisfactory arterial inflow: absence of a pressure gradient between arms, patent palmar arch, and arterial lumen diameter 2.0 mm or more. The criteria necessary for satisfactory venous outflow were venous luminal diameter greater than or equal to 2.5 mm for AF and greater than or equal to 4.0 mm for synthetic bridging grafts (BG) and continuity with distal superficial veins in the arm. Intraoperative and duplex ultrasound measurements were compared. Contemporary experience was compared with the 2-year period (1992 to 1994) before implementation of the protocol. During the period from Sep. 1, 1994, to Apr. 1, 1997, 108 patients (63%) had AF, 52 (30%) had prosthetic BG, and 12 (7%) had permanent catheters (PC) placed. Early failure was seen in 8.3% of AFs. Primary cumulative patency rates were 83% for AF and 74% for BG at 1 year (p < 0.05), with a mean clinical follow-up of 15.2 months. No postoperative infections were observed with AF, whereas six infections (12%) were observed with BG and two (17%) with PC insertion. During the period from June 1, 1992, to Aug. 31, 1994, 183 procedures were performed with a distribution of 14% AF, 62% BG, and 24% PC. In this earlier period the AF early failure rate was 36%, and the patency rates were 48%, 63%, and 48% for AF, BG, and PC, respectively (mean follow-up, 13.8 months). A protocol of noninvasive assessment increased use of AFs. The cumulative patency rate of AFs was improved, and early failure rates were reduced when compared with the preceding institutional experience. Routine noninvasive assessment is recommended to document adequacy of arterial inflow and delineate venous outflow to maximize opportunities for AF.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Radiology
                Radiology
                Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)
                0033-8419
                1527-1315
                January 2008
                January 2008
                : 246
                : 1
                : 299-305
                Article
                10.1148/radiol.2463061942
                970ac80a-da8f-4029-a2be-66e2fb01d37c
                © 2008
                History

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