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      A new species of Rain Frog (Brevicipitidae, Breviceps) endemic to Angola

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          Abstract

          Recent molecular phylogenetic work has found that Breviceps Merrem, 1820 comprises two major clades, one of which, the B. mossambicus group, is widely distributed across southern sub-Saharan Africa. This group is notable for harboring abundant cryptic diversity. Of the four most recently described Breviceps species, three are members of this group, and at least five additional lineages await formal description. Although Breviceps has long been known to occur in Angola, no contemporary material has been collected until recently. The three most widespread taxa, B. adspersus , B. mossambicus , and B. poweri , may all occur in Angola, but accurate species assignment remains challenging given the rampant morphological similarity between these taxa, and, until recently, the lack of genetic resources. Phylogenetic, morphological, and acoustic analyses of recently collected samples from disparate localities within Angola provide evidence for an undescribed species that is sister to B. poweri . The new species can be diagnosed from its sister taxon by lacking pale spots along the flanks, a pale patch above the vent, and a short, dark band below the nares (all present in B. poweri ). Additionally, the male advertisement call differs from the three other Breviceps that might occur in Angola in having both a longer interval between consecutive calls and a higher average dominant frequency. We here describe this lineage as a distinct species, currently only known from Angola, and discuss the presence of other Breviceps taxa within Angola.

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          Resumo

          Investigações moleculares recentes revelaram que o género Breviceps Merrem, 1820, é composto por duas linhagens principais, uma das quais, o grupo B. mossambicus , é amplamente distribuído na região sul da África subsaariana. Este grupo é notável por albergar uma abundante diversidade críptica. Das quatro espécies de Breviceps recentemente descritas, três pertencem a este grupo, e pelo menos outras cinco linhagens adicionais aguardam a sua descrição formal. Apesar de o género ser conhecido de Angola desde há muito tempo, só muito recentemente foram colhidos novos espécimes. Os três taxa mais amplamente distribuídos, B. adspersus , B. mossambicus e B. poweri podem todos, porventura, ocorrer em Angola, no entanto a correta identificação destas espécies têm sido problemática devido às semelhanças morfológicas extremas entre este taxa, e, até muito recente, a completa ausência de material genético. Análises filogenéticas, morfológicas e acústicas dos espécimes recentemente colhidos em diferentes locais de Angola apontam para a existência de uma espécie nova para a ciência, irmã de B. poweri . A nova espécie pode ser diferenciada do seu táxon irmão pela falta de marcas pálidas nos flancos, mancha pálida acima do ventre e pequena banda negra abaixo do nariz (presentes em B. poweri ). Para além destas características, o chamamento dos machos difere das outras três espécies de Breviceps que podem ocorrer em Angola por ter um maior intervalo entre chamamentos consecutivos e uma maior frequência média dominante. Descrevemos aqui esta linhagem como uma espécie distinta, atualmente apenas conhecida de Angola, e discutimos a presença de outras espécies de Breviceps em Angola.

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          Most cited references 60

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          RAxML version 8: a tool for phylogenetic analysis and post-analysis of large phylogenies

          Motivation: Phylogenies are increasingly used in all fields of medical and biological research. Moreover, because of the next-generation sequencing revolution, datasets used for conducting phylogenetic analyses grow at an unprecedented pace. RAxML (Randomized Axelerated Maximum Likelihood) is a popular program for phylogenetic analyses of large datasets under maximum likelihood. Since the last RAxML paper in 2006, it has been continuously maintained and extended to accommodate the increasingly growing input datasets and to serve the needs of the user community. Results: I present some of the most notable new features and extensions of RAxML, such as a substantial extension of substitution models and supported data types, the introduction of SSE3, AVX and AVX2 vector intrinsics, techniques for reducing the memory requirements of the code and a plethora of operations for conducting post-analyses on sets of trees. In addition, an up-to-date 50-page user manual covering all new RAxML options is available. Availability and implementation: The code is available under GNU GPL at https://github.com/stamatak/standard-RAxML. Contact: alexandros.stamatakis@h-its.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

            We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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              MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

              Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                27 October 2020
                : 979
                : 133-160
                Affiliations
                [1 ] University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, Michigan, USA University of Michigan Dearborn United States of America
                [2 ] Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA University of Florida Gainesville United States of America
                [3 ] Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA Marquette University Milwaukee United States of America
                [4 ] Port Elizabeth Museum (Bayworld), Humewood, Republic of South Africa Port Elizabeth Museum Port Elizabeth South Africa
                [5 ] Nelson Mandela University, George, Republic of South Africa Nelson Mandela University George South Africa
                [6 ] National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project, Wild Bird Trust, Republic of South Africa National Geographic Okavango Wilderness Project NA South Africa
                [7 ] Museu de História Natural e da Ciência da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal Museu de História Natural e da Ciência da Universidade do Porto Porto Portugal
                [8 ] Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência, Lisboa, Portugal Museu Nacional de História Natural e da Ciência Lisboa Portugal
                [9 ] Villanova University, Villanova, Pennsylvania, USA Villanova University Villanova United States of America
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Stuart V. Nielsen ( snielsen@ 123456floridamuseum.ufl.edu )

                Academic editor: A. Crottini

                Article
                56863
                10.3897/zookeys.979.56863
                7609483
                Stuart V. Nielsen, Werner Conradie, Luis M. P. Ceríaco, Aaron M. Bauer, Matthew P. Heinicke, Edward L. Stanley, David C. Blackburn

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Anura
                Brevicipitidae
                Biogeography
                Molecular Systematics
                Phylogeny
                Taxonomy
                Paleogene
                Africa
                Southern Africa

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