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      Oxidative Damage and Antioxidant Defense in Ferroptosis

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          Abstract

          Many new types of regulated cell death have been recently implicated in human health and disease. These regulated cell deaths have different morphological, genetic, biochemical, and functional hallmarks. Ferroptosis was originally described as a carcinogenic RAS-dependent non-apoptotic cell death, and is now defined as a type of regulated necrosis characterized by iron accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Multiple oxidative and antioxidant systems, acting together autophagy machinery, shape the process of lipid peroxidation during ferroptosis. In particular, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that depends on the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) and the mitochondrial respiratory chain promotes lipid peroxidation by lipoxygenase (ALOX) or cytochrome P450 reductase (POR). In contrast, the glutathione (GSH), coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), and tetrahydrobiopterin (BH 4) system limits oxidative damage during ferroptosis. These antioxidant processes are further transcriptionally regulated by nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2/NRF2), whereas membrane repair during ferroptotic damage requires the activation of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-III. A further understanding of the process and function of ferroptosis may provide precise treatment strategies for disease.

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          ACSL4 dictates ferroptosis sensitivity by shaping cellular lipid composition.

          Ferroptosis is a form of regulated necrotic cell death controlled by glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). At present, mechanisms that could predict sensitivity and/or resistance and that may be exploited to modulate ferroptosis are needed. We applied two independent approaches-a genome-wide CRISPR-based genetic screen and microarray analysis of ferroptosis-resistant cell lines-to uncover acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) as an essential component for ferroptosis execution. Specifically, Gpx4-Acsl4 double-knockout cells showed marked resistance to ferroptosis. Mechanistically, ACSL4 enriched cellular membranes with long polyunsaturated ω6 fatty acids. Moreover, ACSL4 was preferentially expressed in a panel of basal-like breast cancer cell lines and predicted their sensitivity to ferroptosis. Pharmacological targeting of ACSL4 with thiazolidinediones, a class of antidiabetic compound, ameliorated tissue demise in a mouse model of ferroptosis, suggesting that ACSL4 inhibition is a viable therapeutic approach to preventing ferroptosis-related diseases.
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            Ferroptosis: process and function.

            Ferroptosis is a recently recognized form of regulated cell death. It is characterized morphologically by the presence of smaller than normal mitochondria with condensed mitochondrial membrane densities, reduction or vanishing of mitochondria crista, and outer mitochondrial membrane rupture. It can be induced by experimental compounds (e.g., erastin, Ras-selective lethal small molecule 3, and buthionine sulfoximine) or clinical drugs (e.g., sulfasalazine, sorafenib, and artesunate) in cancer cells and certain normal cells (e.g., kidney tubule cells, neurons, fibroblasts, and T cells). Activation of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels and mitogen-activated protein kinases, upregulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress, and inhibition of cystine/glutamate antiporter is involved in the induction of ferroptosis. This process is characterized by the accumulation of lipid peroxidation products and lethal reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from iron metabolism and can be pharmacologically inhibited by iron chelators (e.g., deferoxamine and desferrioxamine mesylate) and lipid peroxidation inhibitors (e.g., ferrostatin, liproxstatin, and zileuton). Glutathione peroxidase 4, heat shock protein beta-1, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 function as negative regulators of ferroptosis by limiting ROS production and reducing cellular iron uptake, respectively. In contrast, NADPH oxidase and p53 (especially acetylation-defective mutant p53) act as positive regulators of ferroptosis by promotion of ROS production and inhibition of expression of SLC7A11 (a specific light-chain subunit of the cystine/glutamate antiporter), respectively. Misregulated ferroptosis has been implicated in multiple physiological and pathological processes, including cancer cell death, neurotoxicity, neurodegenerative diseases, acute renal failure, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, hepatic and heart ischemia/reperfusion injury, and T-cell immunity. In this review, we summarize the regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of ferroptosis and discuss the role of ferroptosis in disease.
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              Oxidized arachidonic and adrenic PEs navigate cells to ferroptosis.

              Enigmatic lipid peroxidation products have been claimed as the proximate executioners of ferroptosis-a specialized death program triggered by insufficiency of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). Using quantitative redox lipidomics, reverse genetics, bioinformatics and systems biology, we discovered that ferroptosis involves a highly organized oxygenation center, wherein oxidation in endoplasmic-reticulum-associated compartments occurs on only one class of phospholipids (phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs)) and is specific toward two fatty acyls-arachidonoyl (AA) and adrenoyl (AdA). Suppression of AA or AdA esterification into PE by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of acyl-CoA synthase 4 (ACSL4) acts as a specific antiferroptotic rescue pathway. Lipoxygenase (LOX) generates doubly and triply-oxygenated (15-hydroperoxy)-diacylated PE species, which act as death signals, and tocopherols and tocotrienols (vitamin E) suppress LOX and protect against ferroptosis, suggesting a homeostatic physiological role for vitamin E. This oxidative PE death pathway may also represent a target for drug discovery.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Cell Dev Biol
                Front. Cell Dev. Biol.
                Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                2296-634X
                17 September 2020
                2020
                : 8
                : 586578
                Affiliations
                [1] 1The Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University , Guangzhou, China
                [2] 2Department of Surgery, UT Southwestern Medical Center , Dallas, TX, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yinan Gong, University of Pittsburgh, United States

                Reviewed by: Jennifer Martinez, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), United States; Giovanni Quarato, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, United States

                *Correspondence: Daolin Tang, daolin.tang@ 123456utsouthwestern.edu

                This article was submitted to Cell Death and Survival, a section of the journal Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology

                Article
                10.3389/fcell.2020.586578
                7527737
                33043019
                971b2f71-2fd0-4e86-bd7d-e817c846282d
                Copyright © 2020 Kuang, Liu, Tang and Kang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 23 July 2020
                : 28 August 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 119, Pages: 10, Words: 0
                Categories
                Cell and Developmental Biology
                Review

                ferroptosis,cell death,ros,antioxidant,redox
                ferroptosis, cell death, ros, antioxidant, redox

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