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      Demonstrating mood repair with a situation‐based measure of self‐compassion and self‐criticism

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          The clinical significance of self‐criticism and self‐compassion has prompted the development of questionnaires assessing these constructs. However, there is a lack of measures assessing their interaction within specific contexts and potential involvement in mood repair processes.

          Design

          To rectify this, we developed the Self‐Compassion and Self‐Criticism Scales ( SCCS), based on responses to specific scenarios, and examined its psychometric properties in an online survey and an experimental situation.

          Method

          In study 1, standard psychometric procedures were used to investigate the reliability and validity of the SCCS. In study 2, an experimental challenge involving a difficult language task was used to test its sensitivity to change.

          Results

          In study 1, exploratory factor analysis ( n = 413) showed a clear two‐factor structure of the SCCS denoting two orthogonal scales, with high internal validity (α ≥ .87). Correlations between the SCCS and existing measures also demonstrated appropriate convergent validity. Study 2 ( n = 90) provided preliminary evidence that the SCCS can detect changes in self‐appraisals. Participants receiving no performance feedback from the challenge task showed reduced state self‐criticism and increased state self‐compassion, demonstrating mood repair.

          Conclusions

          The SCCS has promise as a situational measure of self‐compassion and self‐criticism.

          Practitioner points

          • In the context of specific problem situations, clients' levels of self‐criticism and self‐compassion may well be orthogonal and can be assessed with the SCCS.

          • In setting treatment goals and assessing treatment outcome, it may be helpful to target both self‐compassion and self‐criticism separately.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 22

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          Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales.

          In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
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            An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion.

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              A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program.

              The aim of these two studies was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC) program, an 8-week workshop designed to train people to be more self-compassionate. Study 1 was a pilot study that examined change scores in self-compassion, mindfulness, and various wellbeing outcomes among community adults (N = 21; mean [M] age = 51.26, 95% female). Study 2 was a randomized controlled trial that compared a treatment group (N = 25; M age = 51.21; 78% female) with a waitlist control group (N = 27; M age = 49.11; 82% female). Study 1 found significant pre/post gains in self-compassion, mindfulness, and various wellbeing outcomes. Study 2 found that compared with the control group, intervention participants reported significantly larger increases in self-compassion, mindfulness, and wellbeing. Gains were maintained at 6-month and 1-year follow-ups. The MSC program appears to be effective at enhancing self-compassion, mindfulness, and wellbeing. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychol Psychother
                Psychol Psychother
                10.1111/(ISSN)2044-8341
                PAPT
                Psychology and Psychotherapy
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1476-0835
                2044-8341
                05 February 2015
                December 2015
                : 88
                : 4 ( doiID: 10.1111/papt.2015.88.issue-4 )
                : 351-365
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Clinical, Educational & Health PsychologyUniversity College London UK
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence should be addressed to Caroline J. Falconer, Department of Clinical, Educational & Health Psychology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK (email: c.falconer@ 123456ucl.ac.uk ).
                Article
                PAPT12056
                10.1111/papt.12056
                4949512
                25663161
                © 2015 The Authors. Psychology and Psychotherapy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the British Psychological Society

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Medical Research Council
                Award ID: MR/J009210/1
                Categories
                Original Article
                Regular Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                papt12056
                December 2015
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.2 mode:remove_FC converted:19.07.2016

                mood repair, self‐compassion, self‐criticism, feedback

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