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      Significance of ACE Genotypes and Medical Treatments in Childhood Focal Glomerulosclerosis

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          Backtround: There is little information on the significance of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes and medical treatments in children with primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was performed on the role of ACE genotypes and medical treatments in 43 Japanese children with FSGS (20 males and 23 females), including 17 children who progressed to end-stage renal failure during the mean observation period of 6.9 ± (SD) 5.0 years. Results: The incidence of the D allele of the ACE gene was higher in the whole group of 43 children with FSGS and in a subgroup of 28 steroid-resistant FSGS children (p < 0.05) than in the 130 children of the healthy control group (0.48, 0.48, and 0.33, respectively). ACE genotypes did not affect renal survival in the whole FSGS group nor in the steroid-resistant subgroup. Among the 28 steroid-resistant children, treatment with ciclosporin was effective in delaying the development of end-stage renal failure (p = 0.044), independently of other treatment regimens. Conclusion: The present study of Japanese children with FSGS showed that the D allele of the ACE gene is associated with the development of FSGS, but not associated with the progression of FSGS which was greatly ameliorated with ciclosporin, irrespective of ACE genotypes.

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          A prospective evaluation of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and the risk of ischemic heart disease.

          In a previous study, men with a history of myocardial infarction were found to have an increased prevalence of homozygosity for the deletional allele (D) of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene. The D allele is associated with higher levels of ACE, which may predispose a person to ischemic heart disease. We investigated the association between the ACE genotype and the incidence of myocardial infarction, as well as other manifestations of ischemic heart disease, in a large, prospective cohort of U.S. male physicians. In the Physicians' Health Study, ischemic heart disease as defined by angina, coronary revascularization, or myocardial infarction developed in 1250 men by 1992. They were matched with 2340 controls according to age and smoking history. Zygosity for the deletion-insertion (D-I) polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined by an assay based on the polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed for both matched pairs and unmatched samples, with adjustment for the effects of known or suspected risk factors by conditional and nonconditional logistic regression, respectively. The ACE genotype was not associated with the occurrence of either ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction. The adjusted relative risk associated with the D allele was 1.07 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.19; P = 0.24) for ischemic heart disease and 1.05 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.25; P = 0.56) for myocardial infarction, if an additive mode of inheritance is assumed. Additional analyses assuming dominant and recessive effects of the D allele also failed to show any association, as did the examination of low-risk subgroups. In a large, prospectively followed population of U.S. male physicians, the presence of the D allele of the ACE gene conferred no appreciable increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction.
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            Genetic polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system and the outcome of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children.

            The clinical course of primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in children is variable, with some patients having a much more rapidly progressing course than others. The purpose of our study was to compare the frequency of three polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in children with FSGS with that in healthy controls of matching ethnic groups, and to determine whether the clinical outcome of FSGS was associated with different RAS genotypes. Three RAS genotypes were examined in 47 Jewish and Arab children with biopsy-proven primary FSGS and in a large control group: the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism in intron 16, the M235T mutation in the angiotensinogen gene, and the A1166C in the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene (AT1R). Arab patients showed a greater tendency towards progressive renal disease than their Jewish counterparts (12 of 21 vs. 9 of 26, P = 0.05) and were less likely to achieve remission (3 of 21 vs. 11 of 26, P < 0.04), despite similar clinical presentation, medical management and follow-up. The RAS allele prevalence was similar among patients and controls of matching ethnic backgrounds, and no difference in allele frequency was found between Arabs and Jews. Homozygotes for the ACE insertion genotype (II) were significantly less likely to have progressive renal disease than patients with the other genotypes (ID and DD; 0 of 6 vs. 21 of 41; P < 0.022). The other RAS polymorphisms were not associated with variations in the clinical course of childhood FSGS. Homozygosity for the ACE insertion allele may have a protective effect in children with FSGS and can serve as a positive prognostic indicator at diagnosis. The D allele may exert a detrimental dominant effect on outcome. Neither the ACE gene polymorphism nor the other RAS polymorphisms studied are associated with disease prevalence. The AT1R and angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms are not associated with progression of renal disease in FSGS. Ethnic differences in the clinical course of the disease are not linked to these polymorphisms.
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              Polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene and progression of IgA nephropathy


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                25 July 2001
                : 88
                : 4
                : 313-319
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, Fukui Medical University, Fukui, bFaculty of Health Science, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, cDepartment of Pediatrics, Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya, dDepartment of Pediatrics, Yokohama, Municipal University, Yokohama, and eDepartment of Pediatrics, Kinki Medical University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan
                46014 Nephron 2001;88:313–319
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 36, Pages: 7
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