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      Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF- κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response


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          Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM) challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1 β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of I κB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)- κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF- κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

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          Most cited references34

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          An official American Thoracic Society workshop report: features and measurements of experimental acute lung injury in animals.

          Acute lung injury (ALI) is well defined in humans, but there is no agreement as to the main features of acute lung injury in animal models. A Committee was organized to determine the main features that characterize ALI in animal models and to identify the most relevant methods to assess these features. We used a Delphi approach in which a series of questionnaires were distributed to a panel of experts in experimental lung injury. The Committee concluded that the main features of experimental ALI include histological evidence of tissue injury, alteration of the alveolar capillary barrier, presence of an inflammatory response, and evidence of physiological dysfunction; they recommended that, to determine if ALI has occurred, at least three of these four main features of ALI should be present. The Committee also identified key "very relevant" and "somewhat relevant" measurements for each of the main features of ALI and recommended the use of least one "very relevant" measurement and preferably one or two additional separate measurements to determine if a main feature of ALI is present. Finally, the Committee emphasized that not all of the measurements listed can or should be performed in every study, and that measurements not included in the list are by no means "irrelevant." Our list of features and measurements of ALI is intended as a guide for investigators, and ultimately investigators should choose the particular measurements that best suit the experimental questions being addressed as well as take into consideration any unique aspects of the experimental design.
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            Role of transcription factor NF-kappa B/Rel in induction of nitric oxide synthase.

            The promoter of the murine gene encoding inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contains an NF-kappa B site beginning 55 base pairs upstream of the TATA box, designated NF-kappa Bd. Reporter constructs containing truncated promoter regions, when transfected into macrophages, revealed that NF-kappa Bd is necessary to confer inducibility by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Oligonucleotide probes containing NF-kappa Bd plus the downstream 9 or 47 base pairs bound proteins that rapidly appeared in the nuclei of LPS-treated macrophages. The nuclear proteins bound to both probes in an NF-kappa Bd-dependent manner, but binding was resistant to cycloheximide only for the shorter probe. The proteins binding both probes reacted with antibodies against p50 and c-rel but not RelB; those binding the shorter probe also reacted with anti-RelA (p65). Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, which acts as a specific inhibitor of NF-kappa B, blocked both the activation of the NF-kappa Bd-binding proteins and the production of NO in LPS-treated macrophages. Thus, activation of NF-kappa B/Rel is critical in the induction of iNOS by LPS. However, additional, newly synthesized proteins contribute to the NF-kappa Bd-dependent transcription factor complex on the iNOS promoter in LPS-treated mouse macrophages.
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              Resolvin E1 promotes phagocytosis-induced neutrophil apoptosis and accelerates resolution of pulmonary inflammation.

              Inappropriate neutrophil activation contributes to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Apoptosis is essential for removal of neutrophils from inflamed tissues and timely resolution of inflammation. Resolvin E1 (RvE1) is an endogenous lipid mediator derived from the ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid that displays proresolving actions. Because the balance of prosurvival and proapoptosis signals determines the fate of neutrophils, we investigated the impact of RvE1 on neutrophil apoptosis and the outcome of neutrophil-mediated pulmonary inflammation in mice. Culture of human neutrophils with RvE1 accelerated apoptosis evoked by phagocytosis of opsonized Escherichia coli or yeast. RvE1 through the leukotriene B(4) receptor BLT1 enhanced NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species generation and subsequent activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3. RvE1 also attenuated ERK and Akt-mediated apoptosis-suppressing signals from myeloperoxidase, serum amyloid A, and bacterial DNA, shifting the balance of pro- and anti-survival signals toward apoptosis via induction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In mice, RvE1 treatment enhanced the resolution of established neutrophil-mediated pulmonary injury evoked by intratracheal instillation or i.p. administration of live E. coli or intratracheal instillation of carrageenan plus myeloperoxidase via facilitating neutrophil apoptosis and their removal by macrophages. The actions of RvE1 were prevented by the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. These results identify a mechanism, promotion of phagocytosis-induced neutrophil apoptosis and mitigation of potent anti-apoptosis signals, by which RvE1 could enhance resolution of acute lung inflammation.

                Author and article information

                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                27 August 2014
                : 2014
                : 583736
                State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Research Institute of Surgery, Daping Hospital, The Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400042, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Baoli Cheng

                Author information
                Copyright © 2014 Xuanfei Li et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 16 February 2014
                : 8 July 2014
                : 29 July 2014
                Research Article


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