A second genus in Chlorociboriaceae is described here as Brahmaculus gen. nov. Macroscopically distinctive, all species have bright yellow apothecia with several apothecial cups held on short branches at the tip of a long stipe. The genus is widely distributed across the Southern Hemisphere; the four new species described here include two from Chile ( B. magellanicus sp. nov., B. osornoensis sp. nov.) and one each from New Zealand ( B. moonlighticus sp. nov.) and Australia ( B. packhamiae sp. nov.). They differ from species referred to Chlorociboria , the only other genus in Chlorociboriaceae , in their terrestrial habitat and ascomata that are noticeably more hairy than the known Chlorociboria species, most of which have apothecia with short, macroscopically indistinct hair-like elements. Based on our analyses, Chlorociboria as accepted here is paraphyletic. Additional study is needed to clarify where alternative, monophyletic generic limits should be drawn and how these genera may be recognised morphologically. Also described here are three new Chlorociboria spp. from New Zealand ( C. metrosideri sp. nov., C. solandri sp. nov., C. subtilis sp. nov.), distinctive in developing on dead leaves rather than wood and in two of them not forming the green pigmentation characteristic of most Chlorociboria species. New Zealand specimens previously incorrectly identified as Chlorociboria argentinensis are provided with a new name, C. novae-zelandiae sp. nov.