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      Comparative molecular cytogenetic characterization of five wild Vigna species (Fabaceae)


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          To extend our knowledge on karyotype variation of the genus Vigna Savi, 1824, the chromosomal organization of rRNA genes and fluorochrome banding patterns of five wild Vigna species were studied. Sequential combined PI (propidium iodide) and DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) (CPD) staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes were used to analyze the karyotypes of V. luteola (Jacquin, 1771) Bentham, 1959, V. vexillata (Linnaeus, 1753) A. Richard, 1845, V. minima (Roxburgh, 1832) Ohwi & H. Ohashi, 1969, V. trilobata (Linnaeus, 1753) Verdcourt, 1968, and V. caracalla (Linnaeus, 1753) Verdcourt,1970. For further phylogenetic analysis, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with the genomic DNA of V. umbellata (Thunberg, 1794) Ohwi & H.Ohashi, 1969 onto the chromosomes of five wild Vigna species was also performed. Detailed karyotypes were established for the first time using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands, and rDNA-FISH signals. All species had chromosome number 2n = 2x = 22, and symmetrical karyotypes that composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. CPD staining revealed all 45S rDNA sites in the five species analyzed, (peri)centromeric GC-rich heterochromatin in V. luteola , V. trilobata and V. caracalla , interstitial GC-rich and pericentromeric AT-rich heterochromatin in V. caracalla . rDNA-FISH revealed two 5S loci in V. caracalla and one 5S locus in the other four species; one 45S locus in V. luteola and V. caracalla , two 45S loci in V. vexillata and V. trilobata , and five 45S loci in V. minima . The karyotypes of the studied species could be clearly distinguished by the karyotypic parameters, and the patterns of the fluorochrome bands and the rDNA sites, which revealed high interspecific variation among the five species. The V. umbellata genomic DNA probe produced weak signals in all proximal regions of V. luteola and all (peri)centromeric regions of V. trilobata . The combined data demonstrate that distinct genome differentiation has occurred among the five species during evolution. The phylogenetic relationships between the five wild species and related cultivated species of Vigna are discussed based on our present and previous molecular cytogenetic data.

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          Cloning and characterization of ribosomal RNA genes from wheat and barley.

          Wheat and barley DNA enriched for ribosomal RNA genes was isolated from actinomycin D-CsCl gradients and used to clone the ribosomal repeating units in the plasmid pAC184. All five chimeric plasmids isolated which contained wheat rDNA and eleven of the thirteen which had barley rDNA were stable and included full length ribosomal repeating units. Physical maps of all length variants cloned have been constructed using the restriction endonucleases Eco Rl, Bam Hl, Bgl II, Hind III and Sal I. Length variation in the repeat units was attributed to differences in the spacer regions. Comparison of Hae III and Hpa II digestion of cereal rDNAs and the cloned repeats suggests that most methylated cytosines in natural rDNA are in -CpG-. Incomplete methylation occurs at specific Bam Hl sites in barley DNA. Detectable quantities of ribosomal spacer sequences are not present at any genomic locations other than those of the ribosomal RNA gene repeats.
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              Chromosomal change is one of the more hotly debated potential mechanisms of speciation. It has long been argued over whether--and to what degree--changes in chromosome structure contribute to reproductive isolation and, ultimately, speciation. In this review we do not aim to completely analyze accumulated data about chromosomal speciation but wish to draw attention to several critical points of speciation-related chromosomal change, namely: (a) interrelations between chromosomal rearrangements and repetitive DNA fraction; (b) mobility of ribosomal DNA clusters; and (c) rDNA and transposable elements as perpetual generators of genome instability. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Author and article information

                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                26 June 2020
                : 14
                : 2
                : 243-264
                [1 ] Key Laboratory of Research and Utilization of Ethnomedicinal Plant Resources of Hunan Province, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan, 418008, China Huaihua University Huaihua China
                [2 ] Key Laboratory of Xiangxi Medicinal Plant and Ethnobotany of Hunan Higher Education, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan, 418008, China Huaihua University Huaihua China
                [3 ] College of Biological and Food Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan, 418008, China Huaihua University Huaihua China
                [4 ] College of Chemistry and Material Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan, 418008, China Huaihua University Huaihua China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Chao-Wen She ( shechaowen@ 123456aliyun.com )

                Academic editor: E. Badaeva

                Chao-Wen She, Ying Mao, Xiang-Hui Jiang, Chun-Ping He

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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