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      A Smartphone-Based Rapid Telemonitoring System for Ebola and Marburg Disease Surveillance


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          We have developed a digital and multiplexed platform for the rapid detection and telemonitoring of infections caused by Ebola and Marburg filoviruses. The system includes a flow cell assay cartridge that captures specific antibodies with microarrayed recombinant antigens from all six species of filovirus, and a smartphone fluorescent reader for high-performance interpretation of test results. Multiplexed viral proteins, which are expandable to include greater numbers of probes, were incorporated to obtain highest confidence results by cross-correlation, and a custom smartphone application was developed for data analysis, interpretation, and communication. The smartphone reader utilizes an opto-electro-mechanical hardware attachment that snaps at the back of a Motorola smartphone and provides a user interface to manage the operation, acquire test results, and communicate with cloud service. The application controls the hardware attachment to turn on LEDs and digitally record the optically enhanced images. Assay processing time is approximately 20 min for microliter amounts of blood, and test results are digitally processed and displayed within 15 s. Furthermore, a secure cloud service was developed for the telemonitoring of test results generated by the smartphone readers in the field. Assay system results were tested with sera from nonhuman primates that received a live attenuated EBOV vaccine. This integrated system will provide a rapid, reliable, and digital solution to prevent the rapid overwhelming of medical systems and resources during EVD or MVD outbreaks. Further, this disease-monitoring system will be useful in resource-limited countries where there is a need for dispersed laboratory analysis of recent or active infections.

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          After Ebola in West Africa — Unpredictable Risks, Preventable Epidemics

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            Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease: Past, Present, and Future.

            Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care. The unprecedented scope of the 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic spurred tremendous innovation in this arena, and a variety of new diagnostic platforms that have the potential both to immediately improve ongoing surveillance efforts in West Africa and to transform future outbreak responses have reached the field. In this review, we describe the evolution of Ebola virus disease diagnostic testing and efforts to deploy field diagnostic laboratories in prior outbreaks. We then explore the diagnostic challenges pervading the 2014-2015 epidemic and provide a comprehensive examination of novel diagnostic tests that are likely to address some of these challenges moving forward.
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              ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit for point-of-care and laboratory-based testing for Ebola virus disease: a field validation study

              At present, diagnosis of Ebola virus disease requires transport of venepuncture blood to field biocontainment laboratories for testing by real-time RT-PCR, resulting in delays that complicate patient care and infection control efforts. Therefore, an urgent need exists for a point-of-care rapid diagnostic test for this disease. In this Article, we report the results of a field validation of the Corgenix ReEBOV Antigen Rapid Test kit.

                Author and article information

                ACS Sens
                ACS Sens
                ACS Sensors
                American Chemical Society
                07 December 2018
                25 January 2019
                : 4
                : 1
                : 61-68
                []Division of Molecular and Translational Sciences, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases , Frederick, Maryland 21702, United States
                []NOWDiagnostics Inc. , Inglewood, California 90301, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]E-mail: Mohan.Natesan.ctr@ 123456mail.mil . Tel +1 301 619 8187.
                Copyright © 2018 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under an ACS AuthorChoice License, which permits copying and redistribution of the article or any adaptations for non-commercial purposes.

                : 14 August 2018
                : 07 December 2018
                Custom metadata

                ebola,point-of-care,smartphone reader,disease surveillance,telemonitoring


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