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      Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map.

      Nature reviews. Microbiology

      Fungi, Archaea, Ecosystem, Biodiversity, Bacteria, Geography

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          Abstract

          We review the biogeography of microorganisms in light of the biogeography of macroorganisms. A large body of research supports the idea that free-living microbial taxa exhibit biogeographic patterns. Current evidence confirms that, as proposed by the Baas-Becking hypothesis, 'the environment selects' and is, in part, responsible for spatial variation in microbial diversity. However, recent studies also dispute the idea that 'everything is everywhere'. We also consider how the processes that generate and maintain biogeographic patterns in macroorganisms could operate in the microbial world.

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          Most cited references 70

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          Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement

           Anne Magurran (1988)
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            The matrix matters: effective isolation in fragmented landscapes.

             T Ricketts (2001)
            Traditional approaches to the study of fragmented landscapes invoke an island-ocean model and assume that the nonhabitat matrix surrounding remnant patches is uniform. Patch isolation, a crucial parameter to the predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theories, is measured by distance alone. To test whether the type of interpatch matrix can contribute significantly to patch isolation, I conducted a mark-recapture study on a butterfly community inhabiting meadows in a naturally patchy landscape. I used maximum likelihood to estimate the relative resistances of the two major matrix types (willow thicket and conifer forest) to butterfly movement between meadow patches. For four of the six butterfly taxa (subfamilies or tribes) studied, conifer was 3-12 times more resistant than willow. For the two remaining taxa (the most vagile and least vagile in the community), resistance estimates for willow and conifer were not significantly different, indicating that responses to matrix differ even among closely related species. These results suggest that the surrounding matrix can significantly influence the "effective isolation" of habitat patches, rendering them more or less isolated than simple distance or classic models would indicate. Modification of the matrix may provide opportunities for reducing patch isolation and thus the extinction risk of populations in fragmented landscapes.
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              Global dispersal of free-living microbial eukaryote species.

              The abundance of individuals in microbial species is so large that dispersal is rarely (if ever) restricted by geographical barriers. This "ubiquitous" dispersal requires an alternative view of the scale and dynamics of biodiversity at the microbial level, wherein global species number is relatively low and local species richness is always sufficient to drive ecosystem functions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                10.1038/nrmicro1341
                16415926

                Chemistry

                Fungi, Archaea, Ecosystem, Biodiversity, Bacteria, Geography

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