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      A Review of Gold and Silver Nanoparticle-Based Colorimetric Sensing Assays

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          A DNA-based method for rationally assembling nanoparticles into macroscopic materials.

          Colloidal particles of metals and semiconductors have potentially useful optical, optoelectronic and material properties that derive from their small (nanoscopic) size. These properties might lead to applications including chemical sensors, spectroscopic enhancers, quantum dot and nanostructure fabrication, and microimaging methods. A great deal of control can now be exercised over the chemical composition, size and polydispersity of colloidal particles, and many methods have been developed for assembling them into useful aggregates and materials. Here we describe a method for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles rationally and reversibly into macroscopic aggregates. The method involves attaching to the surfaces of two batches of 13-nm gold particles non-complementary DNA oligonucleotides capped with thiol groups, which bind to gold. When we add to the solution an oligonucleotide duplex with 'sticky ends' that are complementary to the two grafted sequences, the nanoparticles self-assemble into aggregates. This assembly process can be reversed by thermal denaturation. This strategy should now make it possible to tailor the optical, electronic and structural properties of the colloidal aggregates by using the specificity of DNA interactions to direct the interactions between particles of different size and composition.
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            Selective Colorimetric Detection of Polynucleotides Based on the Distance-Dependent Optical Properties of Gold Nanoparticles

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              Colorimetric detection of DNA sequences based on electrostatic interactions with unmodified gold nanoparticles.

              We find that single- and double-stranded oligonucleotides have different propensities to adsorb on gold nanoparticles in colloidal solution. We use this observation to design a hybridization assay based on color changes associated with gold aggregation. Because the underlying adsorption mechanism is electrostatic, no covalent functionalization of the gold, the probe, or the target DNA is required. Hybridization conditions can be optimized because it is completely separated from the detection step. The assay is complete within 5 min, and <100 femtomoles of target produces color changes observable without instrumentation. Single-base-pair mismatches are easily detected.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Engineering Materials
                Adv. Eng. Mater.
                Wiley
                14381656
                December 2017
                December 2017
                August 03 2017
                : 19
                : 12
                : 1700270
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry, Durban University of Technology; P.O Box 1334 Durban 4000 South Africa
                [2 ]Institut Européen des Membranes, UMR 5635, Université de Montpellier CNRS, ENSCM, Place Eugène Bataillon; F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5 France
                Article
                10.1002/adem.201700270
                974c0e19-ef0f-44ff-84f6-105af1ae9e0d
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor


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