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      Type and Location of Placenta Previa Affect Preterm Delivery Risk Related to Antepartum Hemorrhage

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          Abstract

          Purpose: To evaluate whether type and location of placenta previa affect risk of antepartum hemorrhage-related preterm delivery. Methods: We retrospectively studied 162 women with singleton pregnancies presenting placenta previa. Through observation using transvaginal ultrasound the women were categorized into complete or incomplete placenta previa, and then assigned to anterior and posterior groups. Complete placenta previa was defined as a placenta that completely covered the internal cervical os, with the placental margin >2 cm from the os. Incomplete placenta previa comprised marginal placenta previa whose margin adjacent to the internal os and partial placenta previa which covered the os but the margin situated within 2 cm of the os. Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes in complete and incomplete placenta previa were compared, and the differences between the anterior and the posterior groups were evaluated. Results: Antepartum hemorrhage was more prevalent in women with complete placenta previa than in those with incomplete placenta previa (59.1% versus 17.6%), resulting in the higher incidence of preterm delivery in women with complete than in those with incomplete placenta previa [45.1% versus 8.8%; odds ratio (OR) 8.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59-20.18; p < 0.001]. In complete placenta previa, incidence of antepartum hemorrhage did not significantly differ between the anterior and the posterior groups. However, gestational age at bleeding onset was lower in the anterior group than in the posterior group, and the incidence of preterm delivery was higher in the anterior group than in the posterior group (76.2% versus 32.0%; OR 6.8; 95% CI 2.12-21.84; p = 0.002). In incomplete placenta previa, gestational age at delivery did not significantly differ between the anterior and posterior groups. Conclusion: Obstetricians should be aware of the increased risk of preterm delivery related to antepartum hemorrhage in women with complete placenta previa, particularly when the placenta is located on the anterior wall.

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          Clinical risk factors for placenta previa-placenta accreta.

          Our purpose was to define the clinical risk factors associated with placenta previa-placenta accreta. Hospital records were reviewed of all cases of placenta accreta confirmed histologically between January 1985 and December 1994. Additionally, we reviewed the records of all women with placenta previa and all those undergoing cesarean hysterectomy during the same period. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent clinical risk factors for placenta accreta. Among 155,670 deliveries, 62 (1/2510) were complicated by histologically confirmed placenta accreta. Placenta accreta occurred in 55 of 590 (9.3%) women with placenta previa and in 7 of 155,080 (1/22,154) without placenta previa (relative risk 2065, 95% confidence interval 944 to 4516, p or = 35 years) and previous cesarean delivery were independent risk factors for placenta accreta. Placenta accreta was present in 36 of 124 (29%) cases in which the placenta was implanted over the uterine scar and in 4 of 62 (6.5%) cases in which it was not (relative risk 4.5, 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 12.07). Among women with placenta previa, the risk of placenta accreta ranged from 2% in women < 35 years old with no previous cesarean deliveries to almost 39% in women with two or more previous cesarean deliveries and an anterior or central placenta previa. Placenta accreta occurs in approximately 1 of 2500 deliveries. Among women with placenta previa, the incidence is nearly 10%. In this high-risk group advanced maternal age and previous cesarean section are independent risk factors.
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            Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa.

            Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa are important causes of bleeding in the second half of pregnancy and in labor. Risk factors for placenta previa include prior cesarean delivery, pregnancy termination, intrauterine surgery, smoking, multifetal gestation, increasing parity, and maternal age. The diagnostic modality of choice for placenta previa is transvaginal ultrasonography, and women with a complete placenta previa should be delivered by cesarean. Small studies suggest that, when the placenta to cervical os distance is greater than 2 cm, women may safely have a vaginal delivery. Regional anesthesia for cesarean delivery in women with placenta previa is safe. Delivery should take place at an institution with adequate blood banking facilities. The incidence of placenta accreta is rising, primarily because of the rise in cesarean delivery rates. This condition can be associated with massive blood loss at delivery. Prenatal diagnosis by imaging, followed by planning of peripartum management by a multidisciplinary team, may help reduce morbidity and mortality. Women known to have placenta accreta should be delivered by cesarean, and no attempt should be made to separate the placenta at the time of delivery. The majority of women with significant degrees of placenta accreta will require a hysterectomy. Although successful conservative management has been described, there are currently insufficient data to recommend this approach to management routinely. Vasa previa carries a risk of fetal exsanguination and death when the membranes rupture. The condition can be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound examination. Good outcomes depend on prenatal diagnosis and cesarean delivery before the membranes rupture.
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              Persistence of placenta previa according to gestational age at ultrasound detection.

              To evaluate gestational age at ultrasound detection of placenta previa as a predictor of previa persistence until delivery, and to estimate the effects of previa type, parity, and prior cesarean delivery on previa persistence. This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies with placenta previa detected during transabdominal or endovaginal ultrasound examination. Previa was categorized as complete if the placenta completely covered the internal cervical os or incomplete if the inferior placental edge partially covered or reached the margin of the os. Gestational age was grouped into 4-week intervals from 15 to 36 weeks. The outcome was cesarean delivery for persistent previa. Previa was detected during 940 ultrasound examinations in 714 pregnancies. Of those with placenta previa at 15-19 weeks, 20-23 weeks, 24-27 weeks, 28-31 weeks, and 32-35 weeks, previa persisted until delivery in 12%, 34%, 49%, 62%, and 73%, respectively. At each interval, complete previa was more likely to persist than incomplete previa, all P <.001. Prior cesarean delivery was an independent risk factor for persistent previa among women diagnosed with previa in the second trimester, P <.05. However, parity was not an independent risk factor for persistence at any gestational age interval after adjusting for prior cesarean delivery. Gestational age at ultrasound detection of placenta previa may be used to predict likelihood of previa persistence. After midpregnancy, risk of persistence appears to be higher than previously reported. Type of placentation and prior cesarean delivery are important factors that modify the risk that previa will complicate delivery.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Med Sci
                Int J Med Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Medical Sciences
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1449-1907
                2013
                24 September 2013
                : 10
                : 12
                : 1683-1688
                Affiliations
                Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: Atsuko Sekiguchi Tel: 81-(0)42 371 2111, Fax: 81-(0)42 372 7372, E-mail: oya-a@ 123456nms.ac.jp .

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists.

                Article
                ijmsv10p1683
                10.7150/ijms.6416
                3804794
                24151440
                © Ivyspring International Publisher. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). Reproduction is permitted for personal, noncommercial use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited.
                Categories
                Research Paper

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