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      Natural Compounds for the Management of Parkinson's Disease and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

      BioMed Research International

      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an unknown aetiology. The pathogenic mechanisms include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein dysfunction, inflammation, autophagy, apoptosis, and abnormal deposition of α-synuclein. Currently, the existing pharmacological treatments for PD cannot improve fundamentally the degenerative process of dopaminergic neurons and have numerous side effects. On the other hand, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood and is characterised by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. The aetiology of ADHD remains unknown, although it has been suggested that its pathophysiology involves abnormalities in several brain regions, disturbances of the catecholaminergic pathway, and oxidative stress. Psychostimulants and nonpsychostimulants are the drugs prescribed for the treatment of ADHD; however, they have been associated with increased risk of substance use and have several side effects. Today, there are very few tools available to prevent or to counteract the progression of such neurological disorders. Thus, therapeutic approaches with high efficiency and fewer side effects are needed. This review presents a brief overview of the two neurological disorders and their current treatments, followed by a discussion of the natural compounds which have been studied as therapeutic agents and the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects, in particular, the decrease in oxidative stress.

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          Most cited references 115

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          Parkinson's disease: mechanisms and models.

          Parkinson's disease (PD) results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current PD medications treat symptoms; none halt or retard dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The main obstacle to developing neuroprotective therapies is a limited understanding of the key molecular events that provoke neurodegeneration. The discovery of PD genes has led to the hypothesis that misfolding of proteins and dysfunction of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are pivotal to PD pathogenesis. Previously implicated culprits in PD neurodegeneration, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, may also act in part by causing the accumulation of misfolded proteins, in addition to producing other deleterious events in dopaminergic neurons. Neurotoxin-based models (particularly MPTP) have been important in elucidating the molecular cascade of cell death in dopaminergic neurons. PD models based on the manipulation of PD genes should prove valuable in elucidating important aspects of the disease, such as selective vulnerability of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons to the degenerative process.
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            The prevalence of DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review.

             Erik Willcutt (2012)
            This article describes a comprehensive meta-analysis that was conducted to estimate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV). A systematic literature review identified 86 studies of children and adolescents (N = 163,688 individuals) and 11 studies of adults (N = 14,112 individuals) that met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis, more than half of which were published after the only previous meta-analysis of the prevalence of ADHD was completed. Although prevalence estimates reported by individual studies varied widely, pooled results suggest that the prevalence of DSM-IV ADHD is similar, whether ADHD is defined by parent ratings, teacher ratings, or a best estimate diagnostic procedure in children and adolescents (5.9-7.1 %), or by self-report measures in young adults (5.0 %). Analyses of diagnostic subtypes indicated that the predominantly inattentive type is the most common subtype in the population, but individuals with the combined type are more likely to be referred for clinical services. Additional research is needed to determine the etiology of the higher prevalence of ADHD in males than females and to clarify whether the prevalence of ADHD varies as a function of socioeconomic status or ethnicity. Finally, there were no significant prevalent differences between countries or regions of the world after controlling for differences in the diagnostic algorithms used to define ADHD. These results provide important support for the diagnostic validity of ADHD, and argue against the hypothesis that ADHD is a cultural construct that is restricted to the United States or any other specific culture.
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              Parkinson's Disease

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Neurosciences, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez, Mexico
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Francesco Facchiano

                Contributors
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0003-4907-437X
                Journal
                Biomed Res Int
                Biomed Res Int
                BMRI
                BioMed Research International
                Hindawi
                2314-6133
                2314-6141
                2018
                22 November 2018
                : 2018
                10.1155/2018/4067597
                6282143
                Copyright © 2018 Juan Carlos Corona.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Fondos Federales HIM
                Award ID: 2015/022 SSA 1160
                Categories
                Review Article

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