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      Effects of the essential oils of Lippia turbinata and Lippia polystachya (Verbenaceae) on the temporal pattern of locomotion of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae.

      Parasitology Research

      Animals, Culex, drug effects, physiology, Insecticides, isolation & purification, pharmacology, Larva, Lippia, chemistry, Locomotion, Oils, Volatile, Video Recording

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          The essential oils (EO) of Lippia turbinata (TUR) and Lippia polystachya (POL) have shown lethal effects against mosquito larvae. The present work evaluated whether these EO at doses ranging from sublethal to lethal (20, 40 and 80 ppm) modify the temporal pattern of locomotion of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Larvae were individually placed in glass boxes, and their activity recorded at 0.3 s intervals during 40 min. Individuals treated with doses >40 ppm of either EO significantly decreased their ambulation speed and the percentage of total time ambulating compared to controls. TUR 80 ppm decreased their ambulation even sooner than POL 80 ppm, when compared to their respective controls. These findings are consistent with the neurotoxic effect against insects attributed to alpha-Thujone, a main component of both EO. A detrended fluctuation fractal analysis evaluating the complexity and organisation of the temporal pattern of locomotion showed fractal patterns in all animals. Both sublethal and lethal doses of TUR and POL increased the complexity of ambulation. Interestingly, for POL 20 ppm, an increase in complexity was observed, while no changes in general activity were detected, suggesting that fractal analysis may be more sensitive to detect behavioural changes than general activity evaluation.

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