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      Adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) study: Overview of substance use assessment methods


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          One of the objectives of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study ( https://abcdstudy.org/) is to establish a national longitudinal cohort of 9 and 10 year olds that will be followed for 10 years in order to prospectively study the risk and protective factors influencing substance use and its consequences, examine the impact of substance use on neurocognitive, health and psychosocial outcomes, and to understand the relationship between substance use and psychopathology. This article provides an overview of the ABCD Study Substance Use Workgroup, provides the goals for the workgroup, rationale for the substance use battery, and includes details on the substance use module methods and measurement tools used during baseline, 6-month and 1-year follow-up assessment time-points. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of these substance use domains over a period of ten years in a nationwide sample of youth presents an unprecedented opportunity to further understand the timing and interactive relationships between substance use and neurocognitive, health, and psychopathology outcomes in youth living in the United States.

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          Peer influence on risk taking, risk preference, and risky decision making in adolescence and adulthood: an experimental study.

          In this study, 306 individuals in 3 age groups--adolescents (13-16), youths (18-22), and adults (24 and older)--completed 2 questionnaire measures assessing risk preference and risky decision making, and 1 behavioral task measuring risk taking. Participants in each age group were randomly assigned to complete the measures either alone or with 2 same-aged peers. Analyses indicated that (a) risk taking and risky decision making decreased with age; (b) participants took more risks, focused more on the benefits than the costs of risky behavior, and made riskier decisions when in peer groups than alone; and (c) peer effects on risk taking and risky decision making were stronger among adolescents and youths than adults. These findings support the idea that adolescents are more inclined toward risky behavior and risky decision making than are adults and that peer influence plays an important role in explaining risky behavior during adolescence.
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            The adolescent brain.

            Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that give rise to an increased incidence of unintentional injuries and violence, alcohol and drug abuse, unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to account for the nonlinear changes in behavior observed during adolescence, relative to childhood and adulthood. This review provides a biologically plausible conceptualization of the neural mechanisms underlying these nonlinear changes in behavior, as a heightened responsiveness to incentives while impulse control is still relatively immature during this period. Recent human imaging and animal studies provide a biological basis for this view, suggesting differential development of limbic reward systems relative to top-down control systems during adolescence relative to childhood and adulthood. This developmental pattern may be exacerbated in those adolescents with a predisposition toward risk-taking, increasing the risk for poor outcomes.
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              Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development.

              Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based on post-mortem and pediatric neuroimaging studies published to date, the prefrontal cortex appears to be one of the last brain regions to mature. Given the prolonged physiological development and organization of the prefrontal cortex during childhood, tasks believed to involve this region are ideal for investigating the neural bases of cognitive development. A number of normative pediatric fMRI studies examining prefrontal cortical activity in children during memory and attention tasks are reported. These studies, while largely limited to the domain of prefrontal functioning and its development, lend support for continued development of attention and memory both behaviorally and physiologically throughout childhood and adolescence. Specifically, the magnitude of activity observed in these studies was greater and more diffuse in children relative to adults. These findings are consistent with the view that increasing cognitive capacity during childhood may coincide with a gradual loss rather than formation of new synapses and presumably a strengthening of remaining synaptic connections. It is clear that innovative methods like fMRI together with MRI-based morphometry and nonhuman primate studies will transform our current understanding of human brain development and its relation to behavioral development.

                Author and article information

                Dev Cogn Neurosci
                Dev Cogn Neurosci
                Developmental cognitive neuroscience
                8 May 2018
                21 February 2018
                August 2018
                14 February 2019
                : 32
                : 80-96
                [a ]Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2441 East Hartford Ave, 224 Garland Hall, Milwaukee, WI, 53211, United States
                [b ]Curators’ Professor of Psychological Sciences, University of Missouri, 210 McAlester Hall, Columbia, MO 65211, United States
                [c ]Division of Epidemiology, Services and Prevention Research, National Institute on Drug Abuse, 6001 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States
                [d ]Department of Psychology, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street AHC-4, 461, Miami, FL 33199, United States
                [e ]Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Oregon Health & Science University, Mail code: DC7P, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland OR 97239, United States
                [f ]Department of Psychiatry, P.O. Box 100256, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, United States
                [g ]Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0603, United States
                [h ]Center for Multimodal Imaging and Genetics, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, 9452 Medical Center Drive, La Jolla, CA, 92037, United States
                [i ]Department of Psychiatry (primary) and Department of Neuroscience, Friedman Brain Institute (secondary), Chief, Brain Imaging Center (BIC), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, The Leon and Norma Hess Center for Science and Medicine, 1470 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029, United States
                [j ]Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author. medinak@ 123456uwm.edu (K.M. Lisdahl).

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/).


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