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      Cesium-containing triple cation perovskite solar cells: improved stability, reproducibility and high efficiency†

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          Abstract

          Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. Adding cesium improves the compositions greatly.

          Abstract

          Today's best perovskite solar cells use a mixture of formamidinium and methylammonium as the monovalent cations. With the addition of inorganic cesium, the resulting triple cation perovskite compositions are thermally more stable, contain less phase impurities and are less sensitive to processing conditions. This enables more reproducible device performances to reach a stabilized power output of 21.1% and ∼18% after 250 hours under operational conditions. These properties are key for the industrialization of perovskite photovoltaics.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Rapid planetesimal formation in turbulent circumstellar discs

          The initial stages of planet formation in circumstellar gas discs proceed via dust grains that collide and build up larger and larger bodies (Safronov 1969). How this process continues from metre-sized boulders to kilometre-scale planetesimals is a major unsolved problem (Dominik et al. 2007): boulders stick together poorly (Benz 2000), and spiral into the protostar in a few hundred orbits due to a head wind from the slower rotating gas (Weidenschilling 1977). Gravitational collapse of the solid component has been suggested to overcome this barrier (Safronov 1969, Goldreich & Ward 1973, Youdin & Shu 2002). Even low levels of turbulence, however, inhibit sedimentation of solids to a sufficiently dense midplane layer (Weidenschilling & Cuzzi 1993, Dominik et al. 2007), but turbulence must be present to explain observed gas accretion in protostellar discs (Hartmann 1998). Here we report the discovery of efficient gravitational collapse of boulders in locally overdense regions in the midplane. The boulders concentrate initially in transient high pressures in the turbulent gas (Johansen, Klahr, & Henning 2006), and these concentrations are augmented a further order of magnitude by a streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005, Johansen, Henning, & Klahr 2006, Johansen & Youdin 2007) driven by the relative flow of gas and solids. We find that gravitationally bound clusters form with masses comparable to dwarf planets and containing a distribution of boulder sizes. Gravitational collapse happens much faster than radial drift, offering a possible path to planetesimal formation in accreting circumstellar discs.
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            Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Efficiency Exceeding 9%

            We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO2 film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (JSC) exceeding 17 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (VOC) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH3NH3)PbI3 NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO2 film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells.
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              Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells.

               T Mandal,  Jin Im,  J-Y Heo (2013)
              Chemically tuned inorganic-organic hybrid materials, based on CH3NH3(═MA)Pb(I(1-x)Br(x))3 perovskites, have been studied using UV-vis absorption and X-ray diffraction patterns and applied to nanostructured solar cells. The band gap engineering brought about by the chemical management of MAPb(I(1-x)Br(x))3 perovskites can be controllably tuned to cover almost the entire visible spectrum, enabling the realization of colorful solar cells. We demonstrate highly efficient solar cells exhibiting 12.3% in a power conversion efficiency of under standard AM 1.5, for the most efficient device, as a result of tunable composition for the light harvester in conjunction with a mesoporous TiO2 film and a hole conducting polymer. We believe that the works highlighted in this paper represent one step toward the realization of low-cost, high-efficiency, and long-term stability with colorful solar cells.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [a ] Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces , Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering , École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne , Lausanne CH-1015 , Switzerland . Email: michael.saliba@ 123456epfl.ch
                [b ] Group for Molecular Engineering of Functional Materials , Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering , École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne , Sion CH-1951 , Switzerland
                [c ] Advanced Research Division , Materials Research Laboratory , Panasonic Corporation , 1006 Kadoma , Kadoma City , Osaka 571-8501 , Japan
                [d ] Laboratory of Photomolecular Science (LSPM) École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) , 1015 Lausanne , Switzerland
                Author notes

                ‡These authors contributed equally.

                Journal
                Energy Environ Sci
                Energy Environ Sci
                Energy & Environmental Science
                Royal Society of Chemistry
                1754-5692
                1754-5706
                8 June 2016
                29 March 2016
                : 9
                : 6
                : 1989-1997
                c5ee03874j
                10.1039/c5ee03874j
                4936376
                27478500
                This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0/uk/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Chemistry

                Notes

                †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ee03874j

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