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      Defining gentrification for epidemiologic research: A systematic review

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      1 , * , 2 , 3
      PLoS ONE
      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Neighborhoods have a profound impact on individual health. There is growing interest in the role of dynamic changes to neighborhoods–including gentrification–on the health of residents. However, research on the association between gentrification and health is limited, partly due to the numerous definitions used to define gentrification. This article presents a systematic review of the current state of literature describing the association between gentrification and health. In addition, it provides a novel framework for addressing important next steps in this research. A total of 1393 unique articles were identified, 122 abstracts were reviewed, and 36 articles published from 2007–2020 were included. Of the 36 articles, 9 were qualitative, 24 were quantitative, and 3 were review papers. There was no universally accepted definition of gentrification; definitions often used socioeconomic variables describing demographics, housing, education, and income. Health outcomes associated with gentrification included self-reported health, preterm birth, mental health conditions, alcohol use, psychosocial factors, and health care utilization, though the direction of this association varied. The results of this review also suggest that the impact of gentrification on health is not uniform across populations. For example, marginalized populations, such as Black residents and the elderly, were impacted more than White and younger residents. In addition, we identified multiples gaps in the research, including the need for a conceptual model, future mechanistic studies, and interventions.

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          Most cited references52

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          Stress and Health: Psychological, Behavioral, and Biological Determinants

          Stressors have a major influence upon mood, our sense of well-being, behavior, and health. Acute stress responses in young, healthy individuals may be adaptive and typically do not impose a health burden. However, if the threat is unremitting, particularly in older or unhealthy individuals, the long-term effects of stressors can damage health. The relationship between psychosocial stressors and disease is affected by the nature, number, and persistence of the stressors as well as by the individual's biological vulnerability (i.e., genetics, constitutional factors), psychosocial resources, and learned patterns of coping. Psychosocial interventions have proven useful for treating stress-related disorders and may influence the course of chronic diseases.
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            Social capital, income inequality, and mortality.

            Recent studies have demonstrated that income inequality is related to mortality rates. It was hypothesized, in this study, that income inequality is related to reduction in social cohesion and that disinvestment in social capital is in turn associated with increased mortality. In this cross-sectional ecologic study based on data from 39 states, social capital was measured by weighted responses to two items from the General Social Survey: per capita density of membership in voluntary groups in each state and level of social trust, as gauged by the proportion of residents in each state who believed that people could be trusted. Age-standardized total and cause-specific mortality rates in 1990 were obtained for each state. Income inequality was strongly correlated with both per capita group membership (r = -.46) and lack of social trust (r = .76). In turn, both social trust and group membership were associated with total mortality, as well as rates of death from coronary heart disease, malignant neoplasms, and infant mortality. These data support the notion that income inequality leads to increased mortality via disinvestment in social capital.
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              Poor people, poor places, and poor health: the mediating role of social networks and social capital.

              V Cattell (2001)
              This paper explores the dynamics between poverty and exclusion; neighbourhood, and health and well being by considering the role of social networks and social capital in the social processes involved. It is based on qualitative research taking two deprived areas as exemplary case studies, and involving depth interviews with residents. Neighbourhood influences on networks and social capital were explored, network typologies developed reflecting structural and cultural aspects of individual's networks, and pathways implicated in health effects considered. The complexity of social capital is addressed. The role of three factors in influencing social networks and social capital are demonstrated: neighbourhood characteristics and perceptions; poverty and social exclusion, and social consciousness. Perceptions of inequality could be a source of social capital as well as demoralisation. Different network structures-dense and weak, homogeneous and heterogeneous- were involved in the creation of social capital and had implications for well being. Coping, enjoyment of life and hope are identified as benefits. Although participation in organisations was confirmed as beneficial, it is suggested that today's heterogeneous neighbourhoods also require regenerated local work opportunities to develop bridging ties necessary for the genesis of inclusive social capital and better health. Despite the capacity of social capital to buffer its harsher effects, the concept is not wholly adequate for explaining the deleterious effects of poverty on health and well being.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: MethodologyRole: ResourcesRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: InvestigationRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                21 May 2020
                2020
                : 15
                : 5
                : e0233361
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
                [2 ] Trinity School of Arts and Sciences, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
                [3 ] Department of Population Health Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America
                University of the Witwatersrand, SOUTH AFRICA
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: No authors have no competing interests.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9937-5560
                Article
                PONE-D-20-01526
                10.1371/journal.pone.0233361
                7241805
                32437388
                9776886b-5ccc-4519-8f35-c4a9a78168db
                © 2020 Bhavsar et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 16 January 2020
                : 3 May 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 24
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000050, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute;
                Award ID: K01HL140146
                Award Recipient :
                The research reported in this publication was supported by the National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) career development award K01HL140146 (NAB). The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Earth Sciences
                Geography
                Human Geography
                Neighborhoods
                Social Sciences
                Human Geography
                Neighborhoods
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Public and Occupational Health
                Socioeconomic Aspects of Health
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Research Design
                Survey Research
                Census
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Public and Occupational Health
                Behavioral and Social Aspects of Health
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Mental Health and Psychiatry
                Earth Sciences
                Geography
                Human Geography
                Housing
                Social Sciences
                Human Geography
                Housing
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Mental Health and Psychiatry
                Psychological Stress
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Psychological Stress
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Psychological Stress
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Health Care
                Psychological and Psychosocial Issues
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Articles we reviewed can be found through Pubmed.

                Uncategorized
                Uncategorized

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