30
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      The ecology of insect–yeast relationships and its relevance to human industry

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d13508730e284">Many species of yeast are integral to human society. They produce many of our foods, beverages and industrial chemicals, challenge us as pathogens, and provide models for the study of our own biology. However, few species are regularly studied and much of their ecology remains unclear, hindering the development of knowledge that is needed to improve the relationships between humans and yeasts. There is increasing evidence that insects are an essential component of ascomycetous yeast ecology. We propose a ‘dispersal–encounter hypothesis' whereby yeasts are dispersed by insects between ephemeral, spatially disparate sugar resources, and insects, in turn, obtain the benefits of an honest signal from yeasts for the sugar resources. We review the relationship between yeasts and insects through three main examples: social wasps, social bees and beetles, with some additional examples from fruit flies. Ultimately, we suggest that over the next decades, consideration of these ecological and evolutionary relationships between insects and yeasts will allow prediction of where new yeast diversity is most likely to be discovered, particularly yeasts with traits of interest to human industry. </p>

          Related collections

          Most cited references96

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Mosquito sugar feeding and reproductive energetics.

          Sugar feeding is a fundamental characteristic of mosquito life. Most evidence indicates frequent ingestion by both sexes and all ages of mosquitoes of plant sugar, usually as floral and extrafloral nectar and honeydew. Energetically, sugar and blood are interchangeable; females of some species have evolved independence from one or the other, but most need blood to develop eggs and sugar to survive, to fly, and to enhance reproduction. Mosquitoes' commitment to sugar is further illustrated by a wealth of behavioral, structural, and physiological specializations for finding, feeding on, and processing it. Blood and sugar feeding activities are antagonistic and mutually exclusive, owing to conflicting demands, yet they support the same goals and often share the same activity period. The rules by which females make food-choice decisions have been inadequately explored, and we still lack convincing evidence that sugar availability in nature varies sufficiently to affect mosquito populations.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The microbial ecology of wine grape berries.

            Grapes have a complex microbial ecology including filamentous fungi, yeasts and bacteria with different physiological characteristics and effects upon wine production. Some species are only found in grapes, such as parasitic fungi and environmental bacteria, while others have the ability to survive and grow in wines, constituting the wine microbial consortium. This consortium covers yeast species, lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria. The proportion of these microorganisms depends on the grape ripening stage and on the availability of nutrients. Grape berries are susceptible to fungal parasites until véraison after which the microbiota of truly intact berries is similar to that of plant leaves, which is dominated by basidiomycetous yeasts (e.g. Cryptococcus spp., Rhodotorula spp. Sporobolomyces spp.) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. The cuticle of visually intact berries may bear microfissures and softens with ripening, increasing nutrient availability and explaining the possible dominance by the oxidative or weakly fermentative ascomycetous populations (e.g. Candida spp., Hanseniaspora spp., Metschnikowia spp., Pichia spp.) approaching harvest time. When grape skin is clearly damaged, the availability of high sugar concentrations on the berry surface favours the increase of ascomycetes with higher fermentative activity like Pichia spp. and Zygoascus hellenicus, including dangerous wine spoilage yeasts (e.g. Zygosaccharomyces spp., Torulaspora spp.), and of acetic acid bacteria (e.g. Gluconobacter spp., Acetobacter spp.). The sugar fermenting species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is rarely found on unblemished berries, being favoured by grape damage. Lactic acid bacteria are minor partners of grape microbiota and while being the typical agent of malolactic fermentation, Oenococcus oeni has been seldom isolated from grapes in the vineyard. Environmental ubiquitous bacteria of the genus Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Burkholderia spp., Serratia spp., Staphylococcus spp., among others, have been isolated from grapes but do not have the ability to grow in wines. Saprophytic moulds, like Botrytis cinerea, causing grey rot, or Aspergillus spp., possibly producing ochratoxin, are only active in the vineyard, although their metabolites may affect wine quality during grape processing. The impact of damaged grapes in yeast ecology has been underestimated mostly because of inaccurate grape sampling. Injured berries hidden in apparently sound bunches explain the recovery of a higher number of species when whole bunches are picked. Grape health status is the main factor affecting the microbial ecology of grapes, increasing both microbial numbers and species diversity. Therefore, the influence of abiotic (e.g. climate, rain, hail), biotic (e.g. insects, birds, phytopathogenic and saprophytic moulds) and viticultural (e.g. fungicides) factors is dependent on their primary damaging effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              How did Saccharomyces evolve to become a good brewer?

              Brewing and wine production are among the oldest technologies and their products are almost indispensable in our lives. The central biological agents of beer and wine fermentation are yeasts belonging to the genus Saccharomyces, which can accumulate ethanol. Recent advances in comparative genomics and bioinformatics have made it possible to elucidate when and why yeasts produce ethanol in high concentrations, and how this remarkable trait originated and developed during their evolutionary history. Two research groups have shed light on the origin of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase and the process of ethanol accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
                Proc. R. Soc. B
                The Royal Society
                0962-8452
                1471-2954
                March 21 2018
                March 21 2018
                : 285
                : 1875
                : 20172733
                Article
                10.1098/rspb.2017.2733
                5897634
                29563264
                97783dab-1cb3-4408-8f3b-63d4127f8904
                © 2018

                http://royalsocietypublishing.org/licence

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article