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      Crosstalk between Long Noncoding RNAs and MicroRNAs in Health and Disease

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          Protein-coding genes account for only a small part of the human genome; in fact, the vast majority of transcripts are comprised of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and small ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRs). Accumulating evidence indicates that ncRNAs could play critical roles in regulating many cellular processes which are often implicated in health and disease. For example, ncRNAs are aberrantly expressed in cancers, heart diseases, and many other diseases. LncRNAs and miRs are therefore novel and promising targets to be developed into biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis as well as treatment options. The interaction between lncRNAs and miRs as well as its pathophysiological significance have recently been reported. Mechanistically, it is believed that lncRNAs exert “sponge-like” effects on various miRs, which subsequently inhibits miR-mediated functions. This crosstalk between two types of ncRNAs frequently contributes to the pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the recent studies highlighting the interaction between these ncRNAs and the effects of this interaction on disease pathogenesis and regulation.

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          Most cited references 88

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          Heart disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association.

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            miRBase: integrating microRNA annotation and deep-sequencing data

            miRBase is the primary online repository for all microRNA sequences and annotation. The current release (miRBase 16) contains over 15 000 microRNA gene loci in over 140 species, and over 17 000 distinct mature microRNA sequences. Deep-sequencing technologies have delivered a sharp rise in the rate of novel microRNA discovery. We have mapped reads from short RNA deep-sequencing experiments to microRNAs in miRBase and developed web interfaces to view these mappings. The user can view all read data associated with a given microRNA annotation, filter reads by experiment and count, and search for microRNAs by tissue- and stage-specific expression. These data can be used as a proxy for relative expression levels of microRNA sequences, provide detailed evidence for microRNA annotations and alternative isoforms of mature microRNAs, and allow us to revisit previous annotations. miRBase is available online at:
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              MicroRNA gene expression deregulation in human breast cancer.

              MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression by targeting mRNAs and triggering either translation repression or RNA degradation. Their aberrant expression may be involved in human diseases, including cancer. Indeed, miRNA aberrant expression has been previously found in human chronic lymphocytic leukemias, where miRNA signatures were associated with specific clinicobiological features. Here, we show that, compared with normal breast tissue, miRNAs are also aberrantly expressed in human breast cancer. The overall miRNA expression could clearly separate normal versus cancer tissues, with the most significantly deregulated miRNAs being mir-125b, mir-145, mir-21, and mir-155. Results were confirmed by microarray and Northern blot analyses. We could identify miRNAs whose expression was correlated with specific breast cancer biopathologic features, such as estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, tumor stage, vascular invasion, or proliferation index.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                11 March 2016
                March 2016
                : 17
                : 3
                [1 ]Vascular Biology Center, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; abayoumi@ (A.S.B.); zbroskova@ (Z.B.); jteoh@ (J.-P.T.); hsu@ (H.S.); yaotang@ (Y.-L.T.)
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA; asayed@ (A.S.); jamwilson@ (J.W.)
                [3 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ilkim@ ; Tel.: +1-706-721-9414; Fax: +1-706-721-9799
                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution (CC-BY) license (


                Molecular biology

                chromatin, cancer, epigenetic regulation, gene regulation, heart disease, non-coding rnas


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