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      Mores of the customer base for ecotourism industry: Development and validation of a new measurement scale

      research-article
      1 , 2 , 1 , *
      PLoS ONE
      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          To date, there is no such scale that may precisely measure mores of the customer base for the ecotourism industry. Therefore, a thematic analysis of literature has been conducted by examining various good quality research works on intrinsic characteristics eliciting pro-environmental actions. Based upon the thematic analysis, a new scale of measure has been proposed with the help of 17 scholars and 15 practitioners hailing from different countries by mutually agreed intended meanings and breadth of the theoretical concepts. The new scale has 4 dimensions comprising a pool of 32 items, which has been empirically validated through the data collected from 268 Malaysian tourists. The dimensions are: sense of obligation to care for the natural environment, sense of obligation to practice eco-friendly activities, sense of obligation to purchase eco-friendly products, and sense of obligation to support eco-friendly inventions. The theoretical and managerial implications together with research limitations have been discussed.

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          Most cited references51

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          Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error

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            Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour: An integrative review and research agenda

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Data curationRole: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Software
                Role: Formal analysisRole: InvestigationRole: ValidationRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                18 February 2021
                2021
                : 16
                : 2
                : e0246410
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Business Studies, Namal Institute, Mianwali, Pakistan
                [2 ] Management Sciences, Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan
                University of Naples Federico II, ITALY
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1416-0390
                Article
                PONE-D-20-26243
                10.1371/journal.pone.0246410
                7891728
                33600458
                9792b445-c527-4a9c-94e7-30b4e9e072eb
                © 2021 Bashir et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 21 August 2020
                : 18 January 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Pages: 17
                Funding
                The authors received no specific funding for this work
                Categories
                Research Article
                Engineering and Technology
                Transportation
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Nutrition
                Diet
                Food
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Climatology
                Climate Change
                Global Warming
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Natural Resources
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Recreation
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Behavior
                Recreation
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Climatology
                Climate Change
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Sustainability Science
                Social Sciences
                Philosophy
                Moral Philosophy
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files.

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