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      Insight into melatonin-mediated response and signaling in the regulation of plant defense under biotic stress

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          Role of plant hormones in plant defence responses.

          Plant hormones play important roles in regulating developmental processes and signaling networks involved in plant responses to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stresses. Significant progress has been made in identifying the key components and understanding the role of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonates (JA) and ethylene (ET) in plant responses to biotic stresses. Recent studies indicate that other hormones such as abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, gibberellic acid (GA), cytokinin (CK), brassinosteroids (BR) and peptide hormones are also implicated in plant defence signaling pathways but their role in plant defence is less well studied. Here, we review recent advances made in understanding the role of these hormones in modulating plant defence responses against various diseases and pests.
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            ISOLATION OF MELATONIN, THE PINEAL GLAND FACTOR THAT LIGHTENS MELANOCYTES1

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              Functions of melatonin in plants: a review.

              The number of studies on melatonin in plants has increased significantly in recent years. This molecule, with a large set of functions in animals, has also shown great potential in plant physiology. This review outlines the main functions of melatonin in the physiology of higher plants. Its role as antistress agent against abiotic stressors, such as drought, salinity, low and high ambient temperatures, UV radiation and toxic chemicals, is analyzed. The latest data on their role in plant-pathogen interactions are also discussed. Both abiotic and biotic stresses produce a significant increase in endogenous melatonin levels, indicating its possible role as effector in these situations. The existence of endogenous circadian rhythms in melatonin levels has been demonstrated in some species, and the data, although limited, suggest a central role of this molecule in the day/night cycles in plants. Finally, another aspect that has led to a large volume of research is the involvement of melatonin in aspects of plant development regulation. Although its role as a plant hormone is still far of from being fully established, its involvement in processes such as growth, rhizogenesis, and photosynthesis seems evident. The multiple changes in gene expression caused by melatonin point to its role as a multiregulatory molecule capable of coordinating many aspects of plant development. This last aspect, together with its role as an alleviating-stressor agent, suggests that melatonin is an excellent prospect for crop improvement.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Plant Molecular Biology
                Plant Mol Biol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0167-4412
                1573-5028
                November 16 2021
                Article
                10.1007/s11103-021-01202-3
                34783977
                979e7f30-4e5a-4dc4-823c-e787afd6b427
                © 2021

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

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