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      Pioglitazone Improves Endothelial Function in Non-Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

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          Abstract

          Objective: To test the hypothesis that pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, will improve endothelial function in non-diabetic subjects with coronary artery disease, we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effect of this medication on the brachial artery vasomotor function and circulating markers of endothelial activation. Methods: Baseline characteristics were collected. After initial endothelial function assessment, patients were treated with pioglitazone hydrochloride 30 mg daily. The medication was continued for 12 weeks and endothelial function was reassessed as well as the inflammatory markers. The study medication then was stopped, and all the tests were repeated 12 weeks later. Results: Seventeen subjects completed all three-study phases. Mean age was 58 (range: 36–77 years). Compared with the baseline, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation improved significantly with the treatment (p < 0.001) from 4.4 ± 3.9 to 8.4 ± 4.1%, a relative increase of 91%. After withdrawal of treatment, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation returned towards baseline values. There was no change in endothelium-independent vasodilatation (12.27 ± 6.35 to 13.9 ± 9.23%, to 12.42 ± 5.35%, p = 0.177). The urine asymmetric dimethlyarginine levels decreased significantly with the treatment, but also returned to the initial values after the wash-out period (1.27 ± 0.5 µmol/ml to 0.97 ± 0.3 µmol/ml to 1.34 ± 0.5 µmol/ml, p = 0.017). No difference in the lipid profile, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, or fibrinogen levels was seen. Conclusion: Pioglitazone rapidly improves endothelial function in non-diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. This improvement is associated with a change in mean urinary asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, although a cause and effect cannot be determined from this investigation.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Guidelines for the ultrasound assessment of endothelial-dependent flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery

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            Obesity/insulin resistance is associated with endothelial dysfunction. Implications for the syndrome of insulin resistance.

            To test the hypothesis that obesity/insulin resistance impairs both endothelium-dependent vasodilation and insulin-mediated augmentation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, we studied leg blood flow (LBF) responses to graded intrafemoral artery infusions of methacholine chloride (MCh) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) during saline infusion and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia in lean insulin-sensitive controls (C), in obese insulin-resistant subjects (OB), and in subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). MCh induced increments in LBF were approximately 40% and 55% lower in OB and NIDDM, respectively, as compared with C (P < 0.05). Euglycemic hyperinsulinemia augmented the LBF response to MCh by - 50% in C (P < 0.05 vs saline) but not in OB and NIDDM. SNP caused comparable increments in LBF in all groups. Regression analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation between the maximal LBF change in response to MCh and body fat content. Thus, obesity/insulin resistance is associated with (a) blunted endothelium-dependent, but normal endothelium-independent vasodilation and (b) failure of euglycemic hyperinsulinemia to augment endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Therefore, obese/insulin-resistant subjects are characterized by endothelial dysfunction and endothelial resistance to insulin's effect on enhancement of endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This endothelial dysfunction could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerosis in obese insulin-resistant subjects.
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              Relationship between insulin resistance and an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor.

              Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several cardiovascular risk factors are associated with reduced sensitivity to insulin, but elevated ADMA concentrations have not been fully linked to the metabolic syndrome. To evaluate the relationship between insulin sensitivity and plasma ADMA concentrations, and to determine whether a pharmacological treatment that increases insulin sensitivity would also modulate ADMA concentrations. Cross-sectional study, containing a nonrandomized controlled trial component, of 64 healthy volunteers without diabetes (42 women, 22 men; 48 with normal blood pressure and 16 with hypertension), which was conducted at a university medical center between October 2000 and July 2001. Rosiglitazone (4 mg/d for 4 weeks and then 4 mg twice daily for 8 weeks), an insulin-sensitizing agent, was given to 7 insulin-resistant subjects with hypertension. These subjects were studied before and after 12-week treatment. Insulin sensitivity measured by the insulin suppression test, and fasting plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, insulin, and ADMA concentrations. Plasma ADMA concentrations were positively correlated with impairment of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic, normotensive subjects (r = 0.73; P<.001). Consistent with the metabolic syndrome, ADMA levels were also positively correlated with fasting triglyceride levels (r = 0.52; P<.001) but not with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (r = 0.19; P =.20). Plasma ADMA concentrations increased in insulin-resistant subjects independent of hypertension. Pharmacological treatment improved insulin sensitivity and reduced mean (SD) plasma ADMA concentrations from 1.50 (0.30) to 1.05 (0.33) micromol/L (P =.001). A significant relationship exists between insulin resistance and plasma concentrations of ADMA. Pharmacological intervention with rosiglitazone enhanced insulin sensitivity and reduced ADMA levels. Increases in plasma ADMA concentrations may contribute to the endothelial dysfunction observed in insulin-resistant patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2007
                September 2007
                31 October 2006
                : 108
                : 3
                : 164-169
                Affiliations
                St. Vincent Medical Center Manhattan, New York, N.Y., USA
                Article
                96601 Cardiology 2007;108:164–169
                10.1159/000096601
                17077630
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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