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      Resveratrol Inhibits Neointimal Growth after Arterial Injury in High-Fat-Fed Rodents: The Roles of SIRT1 and AMPK

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          We have shown that both insulin and resveratrol (RSV) decrease neointimal hyperplasia in chow-fed rodents via mechanisms that are in part overlapping and involve the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). However, this vasculoprotective effect of insulin is abolished in high-fat-fed insulin-resistant rats. Since RSV, in addition to increasing insulin sensitivity, can activate eNOS via pathways that are independent of insulin signaling, such as the activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), we speculated that unlike insulin, the vasculoprotective effect of RSV would be retained in high-fat-fed rats. We found that high-fat feeding decreased insulin sensitivity and increased neointimal area and that RSV improved insulin sensitivity ( p < 0.05) and decreased neointimal area in high-fat-fed rats ( p < 0.05). We investigated the role of SIRT1 in the effect of RSV using two genetic mouse models. We found that RSV decreased neointimal area in high-fat-fed wild-type mice ( p < 0.05), an effect that was retained in mice with catalytically inactive SIRT1 ( p < 0.05) and in heterozygous SIRT1-null mice. In contrast, the effect of RSV was abolished in AMKPα2-null mice. Thus, RSV decreased neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury in both high-fat-fed rats and mice, an effect likely not mediated by SIRT1 but by AMPKα2.

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          Most cited references 61

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          SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and resveratrol are not direct activators of SIRT1.

          Sirtuins catalyze NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylation and are critical regulators of transcription, apoptosis, metabolism, and aging. There are seven human sirtuins (SIRT1-7), and SIRT1 has been implicated as a key mediator of the pathways downstream of calorie restriction that have been shown to delay the onset and reduce the incidence of age-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Increasing SIRT1 activity, either by transgenic overexpression of the Sirt1 gene in mice or by pharmacological activation by small molecule activators resveratrol and SRT1720, has shown beneficial effects in rodent models of type 2 diabetes, indicating that SIRT1 may represent an attractive therapeutic target. Herein, we have assessed purported SIRT1 activators by employing biochemical assays utilizing native substrates, including a p53-derived peptide substrate lacking a fluorophore as well as the purified native full-length protein substrates p53 and acetyl-CoA synthetase1. SRT1720, its structurally related compounds SRT2183 and SRT1460, and resveratrol do not lead to apparent activation of SIRT1 with native peptide or full-length protein substrates, whereas they do activate SIRT1 with peptide substrate containing a covalently attached fluorophore. Employing NMR, surface plasmon resonance, and isothermal calorimetry techniques, we provide evidence that these compounds directly interact with fluorophore-containing peptide substrates. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SRT1720 neither lowers plasma glucose nor improves mitochondrial capacity in mice fed a high fat diet. SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and resveratrol exhibit multiple off-target activities against receptors, enzymes, transporters, and ion channels. Taken together, we conclude that SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and resveratrol are not direct activators of SIRT1.
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            Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

            A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
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              Resveratrol stimulates AMP kinase activity in neurons.

              Resveratrol is a polyphenol produced by plants that has multiple beneficial activities similar to those associated with caloric restriction (CR), such as increased life span and delay in the onset of diseases associated with aging. CR improves neuronal health, and the global beneficial effects of CR have been postulated to be mediated by the nervous system. One key enzyme thought to be activated during CR is the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), a sensor of cellular energy levels. AMPK is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio, whereupon it functions to help preserve cellular energy. In this regard, the regulation of dietary food intake by hypothalamic neurons is mediated by AMPK. The suppression of nonessential energy expenditure by activated AMPK along with the CR mimetic and neuroprotective properties of resveratrol led us to hypothesize that neuronal activation of AMPK could be an important component of resveratrol activity. Here, we show that resveratrol activated AMPK in Neuro2a cells and primary neurons in vitro as well as in the brain. Resveratrol and the AMPK-activating compound 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) promoted robust neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a cells, which was blocked by genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of AMPK. Resveratrol also stimulated mitochondrial biogenesis in an AMPK-dependent manner. Resveratrol-stimulated AMPK activity in neurons depended on LKB1 activity but did not require the NAD-dependent protein deacetylase SIRT1 during this time frame. These findings suggest that neuronal activation of AMPK by resveratrol could affect neuronal energy homeostasis and contribute to the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                November 2020
                10 August 2020
                : 57
                : 6
                : 325-340
                aDepartment of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                bDepartment of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Children’s Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
                cDivision of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
                dBiology Department, Morosky College of Health Professions and Sciences, Gannon University, Erie, Pennsylvania, USA
                eDivision of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, California, USA
                fProgram in Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
                gDepartment of Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
                hCentre for Bone and Muscle Health, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada
                iDepartment of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                jInstitute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                kBanting and Best Diabetes Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
                Author notes
                *Adria Giacca, Department of Physiology, University of Toronto Medical Science, Building 1 Kings College Circle, Rm. 3336, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8 (Canada),
                509217 J Vasc Res 2020;57:325–340
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Pages: 16
                Research Article


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