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      Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

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          High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension.

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          Global burden of hypertension: analysis of worldwide data

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            Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States.

            Geographic variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated risk factors have been recognized worldwide. However, little attention has been directed to potential differences in hypertension between Europe and North America. To determine whether higher blood pressure (BP) levels and hypertension are more prevalent in Europe than in the United States and Canada. Sample surveys that were national in scope and conducted in the 1990s were identified in Germany, Finland, Sweden, England, Spain, Italy, Canada, and the United States. Collaborating investigators provided tabular data in a consistent format by age and sex for persons at least 35 years of age. Population registries were the main basis for sampling. Survey sizes ranged from 1800 to 23 100, with response rates of 61% to 87.5%. The data were analyzed to provide age-specific and age-adjusted estimates of BP and hypertension prevalence by country and region (eg, European vs North American). Blood pressure levels and prevalence of hypertension in Europe, the United States, and Canada. Average BP was 136/83 mm Hg in the European countries and 127/77 mm Hg in Canada and the United States among men and women combined who were 35 to 74 years of age. This difference already existed among younger persons (35-39 years) in whom treatment was uncommon (ie, 124/78 mm Hg and 115/75 mm Hg, respectively), and the slope with age was steeper in the European countries. For all age groups, BP measurements were lowest in the United States and highest in Germany. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 28% in the North American countries and 44% in the European countries at the 140/90 mm Hg threshold. The findings for men and women by region were similar. Hypertension prevalence was strongly correlated with stroke mortality (r = 0.78) and more modestly with total CVD (r = 0.44). Despite extensive research on geographic patterns of CVD, the 60% higher prevalence of hypertension in Europe compared with the United States and Canada has not been generally appreciated. The implication of this finding for national prevention strategies should be vigorously explored.
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              Plasma sodium stiffens vascular endothelium and reduces nitric oxide release.

              Dietary salt plays a major role in the regulation of blood pressure, and the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone controls salt homeostasis and extracellular volume. Recent observations suggest that a small increase in plasma sodium concentration may contribute to the pressor response of dietary salt. Because endothelial cells are (i) sensitive to aldosterone, (ii) in physical contact with plasma sodium, and (iii) crucial regulators of vascular tone, we tested whether acute changes in plasma sodium concentration, within the physiological range, can alter the physical properties of endothelial cells. The tip of an atomic force microscope was used as a nanosensor to measure stiffness of living endothelial cells incubated for 3 days in a culture medium containing aldosterone at a physiological concentration (0.45 nM). Endothelial cell stiffness was unaffected by acute changes in sodium concentration <135 mM but rose steeply between 135 and 145 mM. The increase in stiffness occurred within minutes. Lack of aldosterone in the culture medium or treatment with the epithelial sodium channel inhibitor amiloride prevented this response. Nitric oxide formation was found down-regulated in cells cultured in aldosterone-containing high sodium medium. The results suggest that changes in plasma sodium concentration per se may affect endothelial function and thus control vascular tone.

                Author and article information

                Role: Academic Editor
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                21 July 2016
                July 2016
                : 17
                : 7
                [1 ]College of Pharmacy and Natural Medicine Research Institute, Mokpo National University, Muan-gun, Jeonnam 58554, Korea; panth.nisha1@ (N.P.); sin-hee.park@ (S.-H.P.); hyunkim@ (H.J.K.)
                [2 ]UMR CNRS 7213, Laboratoire de Biophotonique et Pharmacologie, Faculté de Pharmacie, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch 67401, France
                [3 ]Research Center, Phyto Corporation, Seoul 08826, Korea; dhkim@
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: mhoak@ ; Tel.: +82-61-450-2681

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (


                Molecular biology

                hypertension, salicornia europaea, vascular dysfunction, blood pressure


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