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      Sustained Control of Gibson Island, Maryland, Populations of Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) by Community-Administered 4-Poster Deer Self-Treatment Bait Stations

      1 , 2 , 2 , 3

      Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases

      Mary Ann Liebert Inc

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          Most cited references 7

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          The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States.

          Until the 1990s, Amblyomma americanum was regarded primarily as a nuisance species, but a tick of minor importance as a vector of zoonotic pathogens affecting humans. With the recent discoveries of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and "Borrelia lonestari," the public health relevance of lone star ticks is no longer in question. During the next 25 years, the number of cases of human disease caused by A. americanum-associated pathogens will probably increase. Based on current trajectories and historic precedents, the increase will be primarily driven by biological and environmental factors that alter the geographic distribution and intensity of transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Sociologic and demographic changes that influence the likelihood of highly susceptible humans coming into contact with infected lone star ticks, in addition to advances in diagnostic capabilities and national surveillance efforts, will also contribute to the anticipated increase in the number of recognized cases of disease.
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            Ambient air temperature as a predictor of activity of adult Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

             D C Duffy,  S Campbell (1994)
            Based on winter flagging experiments on Long Island, NY, adult Ixodes scapularis Say have an apparent threshold of questing activity at 4 degrees C. This threshold should be incorporated into public education efforts because the public may be at risk of contracting Lyme disease any time during the winter when temperatures exceed 4 degrees C.
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              Community-based prevention of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases through topical application of acaricide to white-tailed deer: background and rationale.

              This series of articles describes the first large-scale experiment designed to explore the efficacy of reducing the risk of tick-borne disease in highly endemic communities of the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic United States through deployment of a self-application device that treats white-tailed deer with acaricide to prevent feeding by adult Ixodes scapularis ticks and all stages of Amblyomma americanum ticks where both species occur. The results of the multicenter study are reported in the accompanying articles in this issue. This article describes the background and rationale for this experiment by reviewing relevant literature on current tick-borne disease epidemics and previous efforts to reduce the public health burden of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
                Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
                Mary Ann Liebert Inc
                1530-3667
                1557-7759
                August 2009
                August 2009
                : 9
                : 4
                : 417-421
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.
                [2 ]Knipling-Bushland U.S. Livestock Insects Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Kerrville, Texas.
                [3 ]Biometrical Consulting Service, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland.
                Article
                10.1089/vbz.2008.0166
                © 2009
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