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      Update on the clinical utility and practical use of ropivacaine in Chinese patients

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          Abstract

          We reviewed the Chinese and English literature for efficacy and tolerability data as well as pharmacological properties of ropivacaine in Chinese patients. Ropivacaine is a long-acting amide local anesthetic agent that elicits nerve block via reversible inhibition of sodium ion influx in nerve fibers. The available evidence in the literature on anesthesia practice indicates that ropivacaine produces equally surgical sensory block and postoperative and obstetrics analgesia with good maternal and fetal outcome to those of bupivacaine or levobupivacaine. It appears to be associated with comparable onset, quality, and duration of sensory block, but with a lower incidence or grade of motor block, compared to bupivacaine. The satisfaction of both patients and surgeons is high when ropivacaine is used. Thus, ropivacaine appears to be an important option for regional anesthesia and for the management of postoperative and labor pain, with its enhanced sensorimotor differentiation blockage at lower concentrations and enhanced safety at higher concentrations.

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          Most cited references 91

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          Central nervous and cardiovascular effects of i.v. infusions of ropivacaine, bupivacaine and placebo in volunteers.

          We have compared the incidence of CNS symptoms and changes in echocardiography and electrophysiology during i.v. infusions of ropivacaine, bupivacaine and placebo. Acute tolerance of i.v. infusion of 10 mg min-1 was studied in a crossover, randomized, double-blind study in 12 volunteers previously acquainted with the CNS effects of lignocaine. The maximum tolerated dose for CNS symptoms was higher after ropivacaine in nine of 12 subjects and higher after bupivacaine in three subjects. The 95% confidence limits for the difference in mean dose between ropivacaine and bupivacaine were -30 and 7 mg. The maximum tolerated unbound arterial plasma concentration was twice as high after ropivacaine (P < 0.001). Muscular twitching occurred more frequently after bupivacaine (P < 0.05). The time to disappearance of all symptoms was shorter after ropivacaine (P < 0.05). A threshold for CNS toxicity was apparent at a mean free plasma concentration of approximately 0.6 mg litre-1 for ropivacaine and 0.3 mg litre-1 for bupivacaine. Bupivacaine increased QRS width during sinus rhythm compared with placebo (P < 0.001) and ropivacaine (P < 0.01). Bupivacaine reduced both left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared with placebo (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively), while ropivacaine reduced only systolic function (P < 0.01).
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            Efficacy of continuous wound catheters delivering local anesthetic for postoperative analgesia: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

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              Acute toxicity of ropivacaine compared with that of bupivacaine.

              The acute central nervous and cardiovascular effects of the local anesthetics ropivacaine and bupivacaine were compared in 12 volunteers in a randomized double-blind manner with use of intravenous infusions at a rate of 10 mg/min up to a maximal dose of 150 mg. The volunteers were all healthy men. They were familiarized with the central nervous system (CNS) toxic effects of local anesthetics by receiving a preliminary intravenous injection of lidocaine. The infusions of ropivacaine and bupivacaine were given not less than 7 days apart. CNS toxicity was identified by the CNS symptoms and the volunteers were told to request that the infusion be stopped when they felt definite but not severe symptoms of toxicity such as numbness of the mouth, lightheadedness, and tinnitus. In the absence of definite symptoms, the infusion was stopped after 150 mg had been given. Cardiovascular system (CVS) changes in conductivity and myocardial contractility were monitored using an interpretive electrocardiograph (which measured PR interval, QRS duration, and QT interval corrected for heart rate) and echocardiography (which measured left ventricular dimensions from which stroke volume and ejection fraction were calculated). Ropivacaine caused less CNS symptoms and was at least 25% less toxic than bupivacaine in regard to the dose tolerated. Both drugs increased heart rate and arterial pressure. Stroke volume and ejection fraction were reduced. There was no change in cardiac output. Although both drugs caused evidence of depression of conductivity and contractility, these appeared at lower dosage and lower plasma concentrations with bupivacaine than with ropivacaine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                09 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1269-1276
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wei Mei, Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Ave 1095, Wuhan 430030, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 27 8366 3173, Fax +86 27 8373 4643, Email wmei@ 123456tjh.tjmu.edu.cn
                Yuke Tian, Department of Anesthesiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Jiefang Ave 1095, Wuhan 430030, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 27 8366 2853, Fax +86 27 8373 4643, Email yktian@ 123456tjh.tjmu.edu.cn
                Article
                dddt-8-1269
                10.2147/DDDT.S57258
                4166907
                © 2014 Li et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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